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You may be missing this article, which finds that Brazilian Portuguese speakers do not rely exclusively on VOT values in perceiving the English p/b contrast (although, the subjects were learning English). In particular, burst intensity and F0 are also cues to phonological voicing, which could easily suffice to overcome the difference in VOT. It would also be ...


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It can be an erroneous, but there are no such counterparts, as [i] and [j], or [u] and [w]. Phonemically (i.e. in //), yes, but phonetically is no. This is the rare thing in languages, the cardinal vowels itself (especially for the /i/ vowel - in most languages it is not so high, and sometimes is retracted - [i̞~i̞˗]. So more correct to say that there are [ɪ]...


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In Latin there is qui (nominative singular) and cui (dative singular), presumably something like /kwi/ and /kuj/ respectively.


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The conventional phonological difference between the glides [j,w] and [i,u] is that the former is a consonant and the latter is a vowel, in the sense of "not a syllable peak" versus "is a syllable peak". In pre-autosegmental theories of representation, glides are [–syllabic] and vowels are [+syllable], and "syllabic consonants" ...


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I like the answer given by user6726, but want to address some other issues. Generally, any kind of /e/ will be "halfway" between /a/ and /i/ as you divide the "vowel space" into three. To distinguish [ɛ] and [e], you generally have to divide the same space into four, so that [ɛ] will be noticeably closer in sound to /a/ and [e] will be ...


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The only effective way to produce IPA sounds in a standard manner is to listen to and imitate expert productions. The IPA kindly provides a collection of such recordings, which you can get here. There are a number of knock-offs on the internet if you aren't interested in standard values. As you will notice, there are differences in the productions of the ...


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Some examples drawn from Phoible are Ket, Khasi, Garo, Malay (Standard), Iai, Kaliai, Maori, Hawaiian, Asmat, Kunimaipa, Nasioi, Kalaallisut, Eastern Ojibwa, Ticuna, Ocaina, Guarani, Liberian Kpelle and Khoekhoe. However, one should also dig into the original data sources. A non-original data source, Wikipedia, cites [qàj] 'elk' in Ket; the unglossed root &...


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The answer by Brass Tacks is basically correct, but could still be elaborated on for the sake of clarity. The concept was introduced in Kiparsky 1972 in a paper "Abstractness, opacity and global rules" (published by IULC), in an attempt to explain why in Estonian /lugu/ → [loo] "story" but /luu/ "bone" does not undergo vowel ...


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A derived environment is a phonological context that exists because of a rule or process. For example, the English plural noun "socks" in the sentence "I have white socks" has a final [ks] cluster that results from the plural-forming rule or process which adds [s] to the end of the word, so the [ks] cluster in socks is in a derived ...


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I assume you mean ὄφις, not ὄψις. The process where kʷ etc become [kp] is reasonably well-attested in the languages of Africa as well as in Indo-European where the outcome would be [p] ([kp] is a typologically anomalous outcome limited mostly to a band of languages in Africa). The lingual outcome can be explained as an acoustically-driven modification of the ...


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One way to describe consonants is in terms of their physical production, another is in terms of their abstract algebraic function. Unfortunately, there is a tendency to impute physical meanings to abstract terms like "tense" and "lax". The terms "tense" and "lax" are generally only used to describe vowels, specifically ...


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