At the risk of redundancy, I'll offer the canonical example:
Time flies like an arrow.
Time passes rapidly in human experience.
Those 'time flies' sure do like arrows.
(Hey you:) Go (as fast as an arrow) and time some flies.
(Fruit flies like a banana).
I think it is appropriate to take a step back and consider what grammarians understand predicates to be. I have asked a number of established syntacticians directly how they use the term predicate. The responses I have received are quite varied.
In order to understand what a “secondary” predicate is, though, I think one should first know what a “primary” ...
First of all, it should be noted that in nearly all generative theories--even in ones which generate subjects inside the VP--the subject practically never stays there for long. Subjects generally move upwards into a position where they can receive Case; by most X' accounts, they move up into SpecTP (or SpecIP, etc.).
This is what BillJ's response is ...
Superscript 0 is universally the symbol for the head of a phrase - note how in your examples, it occurs only on T, Pred and V (as opposed to TP, PredP or VP).
I can't say that I'm immediately familiar with superscript 1 and 2 (i.e. this is not as conventional as superscript 0), but if I had to guess: they serve to differentiate multiple independent ...
The object is a kind of complement since it satisfies the licensing requirements.
The subject is rather different: all canonical clauses contain a subject, so in a sense subjects are compatible with any verb.
However, certain syntactic kinds of subject are restricted to occurrence with particular kinds of verbs, so the concept of licensing applies here too. ...