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7

Is there a common origin? No. Is there some theory to explain this? I propose one: common need. In Is “Huh?” a Universal Word? Conversational Infrastructure and the Convergent Evolution of Linguistic Items, Dingemanse et. al. have found that in 10 languages, (and less carefully studied, 30 languages) Huh? is universal, and that it is a word. ...the ...


7

Your 'rules' mix traditional and contemporary grammars. It's true in both traditional and contemporary grammars that a preposition phrase [PP] consists of a preposition and an object; but in contemporary grammars PPs 'establish relations' between constituents, not as in traditional grammar 'words'. Your third rule acknowledges this in defining the object of ...


6

Short answer An adverb phrase is best thought of as a phrase headed by an adverb, in the same way that a preposition phrase is a phrase headed by a preposition and so forth. An 'Adverbial' is a Modifier within a clause or sentence. In other words Adverbial is a grammatical relation like Subject or Object, whereas adverb phrase is a phrasal category like ...


6

I very much dislike the term "adverbial". I think it is very unsatisfactory to have a function term that is morphologically derived from a category term. Adverb is a word category, and adverb phrase (a phrase headed by an adverb) the corresponding phrase category. Adverbial is a function and may be realised by an AdvP (He spoke quickly), a PP (He spoke ...


5

I agree that the English spelling of compounds is to a large degree arbitrary, but I also think there is an objectifiable distinction between compounds and phrases, at least in Indo-European languages. In languages like Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, German nominal compounds can be recognised from the fact that the first member is normally uninflected, e.g. ...


4

The number of people who speak English as their native language will decline. The string as their native comprises three separate items: the preposition "as", the genitive pronoun "their" and the adjective "native". It is not itself a constituent, but part of the preposition phrase as their native language headed by the preposition "as".


4

Short answer '[I]n the many places where I was guilty of the reprehensible and shockingly common confusion of the notions of "adverb" and "adverbial"; these defects, for which I hang my head in shame, I have corrected wherever I have found them.' McCawley The Syntactic Phenomena of English, 2nd Ed,(p. xii) In the quote above, McCawley ...


3

The term for such kind of phrase is multiword expression. I am not aware of a special term for the process that creates multiword expression. I am also not aware of some special treatment of them; in corpus linguistics usually each word is tagged separately with a part-of-speech tag and syntax trees are built from the single words (as separated by spaces).


3

You're asking about both constituency and dependency. Constituency: Is "peek into" a phrasal verb or verb+preposition? So do we have [[peeking into][the alley]] or [peeking[into[the alley]]]? You did the right test to deduce "peek into" is not a phrasal verb. Also, no dictionary states "peek into" is a phrasal verb. This leave us with only the second ...


3

The answer to this question has (again) to do with the argument vs. adjunct distinction. Often the term complement is used in place of argument, although the argument notion is more clearly defined. Arguments are usually noun phrases (NPs), whereas adjuncts are typically adverbs, prepositional phrases (PPs), or clauses. Sometimes, however, PPs and clauses ...


2

to peek - into the alley to look - into the mirror to go - into the house to fall - into the pit Such structures are verb + preposition group (a where-to indication). If you analyze the structure as "go into - the house" and take "the house" as a direct object, then this is the wrong view. A direct object never answers the question where to.


2

Modern Greek has "have under view = to be aware of", έχω υπ' όψιν and "take under view = to consider", λαμβάνω υπ' όψιν; the morphology is Ancient. The phrase is classic Puristic, but it appears to be mediaeval in origin, rather than calqued French or German (as was typical of such Puristic shibboleths). The 11th century historian Michael Attaliates used ...


2

As @user6726 already said, you can not assign the phrase a POS, because "part of speech" refers to single words which as their native language isn't. If you are interested in the syntactic category, you could say it is a prepositional phrase, because the head of the phrase is as which is a preposition1: as is a preposition, their functions as a determiner (...


2

Somewhere there is a crime happening. In the sentence above from the Robocop films the word somewhere is functioning as a Locative Adjunct. Notice that it can appear either at the beginning or end of the clause: There is a crime happening somewhere. Notice also that the word there cannot move with the word somewhere: *Is a crime happening somewhere ...


2

(the question should be on ELU or ELL) In the first group (both sides), the infinitive action is done by the subject. In the second group (right side), the infinitive action is done by the main object, so you can't put it at the end on the left side -- because it is ambiguous with an adverbial of the main verb (affecting the subject rather than the object)....


2

This is very difficult. I'll recommend three things: Use the U of I CogComp shallow parser to get phrases (not CoreNLP), see: http://nlp.cogcomp.org/ It's much better at picking up phrases, IMO. If you google around, you'll find several pre-built list of phrases (idioms, fixed expressions, etc.); use the ones that meet your needs for example, https://...


2

Assuming that syntactic analysis is more interested in functional rather than lexical aspects, it would be not implausible that in general, certain POS categories can be subsumed under one syntactic category label in order to caputure syntactic commonalities between different word classes, while at the same time it seems possible to create syntactic lables ...


1

I'm going to answer your questions in reverse order. Is it a completely idiomatic structure, or is there some way to connect it to more regular grammar? While these individual examples are idioms, the basic principle is completely regular. Compare: We work nights. We work long hours. We work weekends. It's raining bucketloads. It's raining ash. It's ...


1

I don't think there is such a thing as "egoistical emotion" that can be detected. A huge part of the problem here is confusion between "egoistical" and "egotistical". All of your existing examples are looking to detect whether someone things/feels/etc. that she's superior to other people. That's a sign of egotism.1 Egoism is a tendency to act selfishly, or ...


1

The phrase "bien décidés" qualifies "quelques volontaires", which is a noun phrase, as its head is the noun "volontaires". A phrase that qualifies a noun phrase would typically be an adjectival phrase: this is, similarly to the noun phrase, because its head is the adjective "décidés" (a past participle used as an adjective). The fact that "bien", which in ...


1

They are separate words belonging to different syntactic classes. "bien" is an adverb here that determines the adjective "décidés". "bien" can be substituted for another adverb as "très". "bien" can be an adjective also, then it could be possible to consider that "bien décidé" could be an adjectival phrase as "bien portant". But, in your case, they don't ...


1

They are different 'linguistic forms' pointing to the same referent, so the term 'periphrases' (generated through grammatical transformations) seems the correct one. Instead, Frege used the term 'sense' (german Sinn) to describe cases such as 'disciple of Plato' and 'tutor of Alexander' to refer to Aristotle, intended as 'different ways of presenting itself' ...


1

Edit: As Araucaria pointed out, OP (and consequently I) misinterpreted the sentence for Somwhere there a crime is happening/Somehwere there, there is a crime happening, which, however, is not what the sentence says; so my below answer only applies to the other assumption, not to the original sentence. I would argue that there is the head for the following ...


1

I question whether the premise of your question is true about language structure, though it is surely true about the way some people talk about language. Why think there is any difference between single word and "corresponding" multiple word constituents? It's easy to think of counterexamples. "Small" is a single word prenominal modifier -- an adjective. ...


1

In the example "The number of people who speak English as their native language will decline", "as their native language" is a manner adverb, which makes it a V-bar modifier, following the analysis in McCawley's The Syntactic Phenomena of English. The V-bar modified is "speak English". Syntacticians generally identify syntactic categories, or parts of ...


1

At first sight, an analysis as a (binary composed) compound seems to be possible: You could start arguing about the precise labels; for reason of simplicity I just assumed that the suffix "-ed" makes words an adjective. Concerning stress, I would say (I use ˈ for primary and ˌ for secondary stress, the rest is unstressed): for the first part: compressed ...


1

I've heard this referred to as 'linguistic insecurity'. This is neither '3-4 words', nor specifically incorporates the 'move to another region' aspect you mention, but people often talk about 'linguistic insecurity and migration'.


1

I find the question and much of the discussion so far contaminated by confusions between language and writing and between word and phrase. "Frying pan" is a noun; it is a compound, made up of two words, "frying" and "pan", which are both nouns. It is not a noun phrase, though you might be able to find a noun phrase (e.g., the subject of a sentence) which ...


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