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7

In the process of dialect levelling, the grammatical system of the dialects (tense, nominal case systems, other complex features) usually stays intact. The dialects undergoing dialect levelling are full-fledged languages at each time of the process. The dialects just converge to each other or to a dachsprache dominating them. In contrast, a pidgin discards ...


4

I would love someone else to answer this more fully, but one thing I would like to point out is the assumption in this question that more inflection implies greater complexity in language. The reality is much more complex than that; languages like English (and in fact, many of the modern Indo-European languages) have exchanged complex inflectional systems (...


4

Indonesian being the official language of Indonesia, it is widely spoken, so wherever you are you'd stand a better chance at being understood if you speak Indonesian than if you speak Batak. There is always the chance that if you are dealing with Kombai or Wano people that you may need a different language, but no language is more widely used in Indonesia.


2

I cannot say about those regions of Slovakia specifically, but in other areas which after Trianon became part of other states there are no Hungarian-based pidgins. In Vojvodina, Transylvania, Banat and around Sopron and Bratislava today, I have not heard nor heard of such a pidgin or creole. Usually minorities, whether at the national level or the local ...


2

Curta’s hypothesis sounds a little far-fetched but there’s a more plausible theory that a form of Slavic spread very rapidly — maybe with the Avars — across the Balkans, effectively smoothing out much of the dialectal differences that must have existed at that time. This theory assumes that Slavic was indeed used as a lingua franca but had been adopted ...


1

The only case that I know of where "broken English" is a pidgin is Nigerian or Cameroonian Pidgin, which is called "Broken" by some. Otherwise, it is simply English as a second language, with a low level of proficiency (or emulation of such English by a native speaker of English). It is an individual phenomenon, where a person learns (and ...


1

The study should not be that difficult to do, just enumerate all the subsets of words from the smallest to the largest, and see which is the smallest set that suffices to define the rest of the words in the dictionary. I think you should consider a different definition of circularity. You have a minimum set of words in the defining vocabulary whose ...


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