27

As jlawer says, English "fire" doesn't actually come from Greek pŷr. "Pyre" does, but that's a borrowing (via Latin), and it's pretty clear how it happened. Instead, English and Greek share a common ancestor (Proto-Indo-European), which split into Pre-Proto-Germanic and Proto-Hellenic (and many other branches) several thousand years ago. One of the ...


25

English fire is not derived from Greek πυρ. Both fire and πυρ come originally from the Proto-Indo-European root *paəwr̥. Greek simplified the *aəw vowel sequence to /ū/, but kept the consonants. Proto-Germanic was *fūr, similar to Greek, but all Germanic voiceless stops like *p became homorganic fricatives like *f as part of the group of consonant changes ...


3

I would add that, phonetically, voice is a matter of timing, more precisely of the VOT or Voice-Onset Time, which refers to the time when your vocal folds begin to vibrate with respect to the moment of release of the consonantal "blockage". Generally, there is a continuum of values, spanning from voiced consonants, having a negative VOT, to voiceless ...


3

This is quite common. I would argue that that Georgian pattern is almost the same thing as the aspirated-unvoiced-ejective pattern. This variant where the plain stop is voiced occurs frequently in other Caucasian languages as well as Georgian, and also shows up pretty frequently in North America. To start looking for answers to questions like this, I would ...


3

This is basically a terminological problem. It is sometimes said that there are no lateral plosives, because you don't see any lateral plosive letter in the IPA row for plosives. Plosives are categorized in terms of the place where the constriction is, and "lateral" isn't considered a place, it's termed a "manner". That's not totally inappropriate, since ...


2

Coincidentally, the page of Preliminaries to Linguistic Phonetics (1971) by Peter Ladefoged that I cited recently in my answer to Is there a voiced-unvoiced pair for R or L in any language? actually has something to say about this: Table 33 includes some items labeled lateral stops. In this label it might appear that the term lateral is being used in an ...


1

There are different kinds of stop consonant /b/. Prevoiced /b/: this occurs in Spanish, French, Russian, etc; has a negative VOT. In other words, voicing starts before the closure. You can call it 'voice lagging time'. Partially voiced /b/: this occurs in aspirating languages, and intially. has non-negative VOT (sure, you find some speakers with negative ...


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