13

First of all, the sentence I have my hair cut. is an example of a Construction. That is, there is a special model for this clause, with its own unique sets of meanings, uses, restrictions and affordances. So one shouldn't expect it to be a normal short sentence. And it isn't. In a sentence with only 5 words, there are 2 verbs and two noun phrases, so the ...


6

The adjectives in question do indeed behave in a unique way. They are dependents of the verb, but they are predications over the subject (or object), e.g He died young. The adjective young is a direct dependent of the verb died, but it is a predication over the subject he, i.e. it assigns the property of youngness to he. In other words, young is behaving ...


5

I have my hair [cut]. This is a catenative construction, where causative "have" is a catenative verb with the past-participial clause "cut" functioning as its catenative complement. The intervening NP "my hair" is the (raised) syntactic object of "have" and the understood (semantic) subject of the subordinate clause.


3

I think it is appropriate to take a step back and consider what grammarians understand predicates to be. I have asked a number of established syntacticians directly how they use the term predicate. The responses I have received are quite varied. In order to understand what a “secondary” predicate is, though, I think one should first know what a “primary” ...


3

From David Adger (2003), Core Syntax - A Minimalist Approach, p. 19: [Syntactic] features that have an effect on semantic interpretation [...] are called interpretable features. Person, number and gender are examples of interpretable features in English: (13) The child wails (14) The children wail The plural feature clearly has an effect not just on the ...


3

I think the confusion is due to the varied use of the terms attribute (attributive), predicate (predicative), argument (≈complement), and adjunct. Depending on how one wants to use these four terms, one can cut the cake in various ways. One can, for instance, emphasize the distinction between attributive and predicative adjectives, e.g. Attributive vs. ...


3

In German, attributive adjectives agree in number and gender, while predicative adjectives (which are used with a copulative verb) do not, and are invariable. In fact, some analyses of German consider the predicative adjectives and deadjectival adverbs to in fact belong to the same category of speech, since an adjective used as an adverb also does not agree ...


2

John entered the room angry. I'd say that "angry" is an optional depictive functioning as a 'predicative adjunct'. It's an adjunct because it's an optional item functioning here as a modifier in clause structure, and it's predicative because it's related to a predicand, i.e. "John". (Compare the predicative complement in "John was ...


2

"very" modifies only adjectives, not verbs: "*John very shot my dog." -> *"My dog was very shot."


2

Russian has this feature, too: этот больной человек 'this sick person' vs. этот человек болен 'this person is sick'.


1

Superscript 0 is universally the symbol for the head of a phrase - note how in your examples, it occurs only on T, Pred and V (as opposed to TP, PredP or VP). I can't say that I'm immediately familiar with superscript 1 and 2 (i.e. this is not as conventional as superscript 0), but if I had to guess: they serve to differentiate multiple independent ...


1

In Finnish, attributive and predicative adjectives have different agreement patterns when they are modifying mass-nouns and (most) plural count-nouns. For example, valkoinen lumi "the white snow" (mass-noun) pitkät ihmiset "the tall people" (plural count-noun) Here, valkoinen "white" and pitkä "long, tall" are in the nominative, just like their head ...


1

For example German: Der hässliche Hund ~ Der Hund ist hässlich.


1

Classic X-bar theory takes all syntactic structure to be binary branching, a controversial assumption. Data like that produced in the question demonstrate why it is a controversial assumption. The example sentences cannot be anaylized convincingly in terms of strict binarity of branching. But if one is striving to maintain strict binarity of branching, ...


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