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This is somewhat complicated by the fact that many people who write about this stuff in English are not professional linguists nor professional scholars/historians of the Japanese language: they learned Japanese through their native language (usually English) for the purpose of going on a trip to Japan, communicating with their Japanese girlfriend, etc. One ...


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The Polish pronouns ja (“I”), ty (“you singular, thou”), on (“he”), ono (“it”) have two sets of forms in the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative cases: a full form and a clitic form. The clitic form has no stress of its own and intonationally it is attached to the previous word, therefore the clitic forms cannot begin a sentence while the full forms can. The ...


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Yes, you do understand correctly what those sentences mean. In the Slavic languages in general and in Polish in particular, the direct object of a verb is in the Accusative case when the verb is affirmative, but if the verb is negated, the direct object is in the Genitive case (see #3 here). It is one of the most basic rules of Polish syntax and case usage....


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