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37

English has been spoken in New York for hundreds of years while Hebrew was only revitalized in the late 19th century. The British Isles are said to have more varieties of English than the rest of the world combined, while English spoken in Australia, for instance, is only beginning to develop geographical variation. What is evident from this is that age ...


28

You’re right that there is very little regional variation in Modern Hebrew accents (though there are a few street market and schoolyard slang differences). Israel is a small, well-connected country with fairly homogeneous media consumption, so this is perhaps not that surprising. That said, there are certainly ethnolect and sociolect accents. The big ...


17

Yes, your assumption on a correlation between pitch variance and vocabulary size is wrong. The use of pitch you speak of is called "prosody" in linguistics; different speaking groups in society may use different levels of pitch in their prosody, or even different prosodic melodies, without any predefined relationship to vocabulary or social standing (for ...


16

IPA doesn't make that decision. However, conventionally, stress is marked at the beginning of the syllable. The implication of transcribing the word as [gəˈʃtɔlt] is that the onset of the stressed syllable is [ʃt], not just [t]. If /t/ were at the beginning of a stressed syllable, it would be aspirated, thus *[gəʃˈtʰɔlt], which is wrong. Lack of aspiration ...


15

Lexical tones and prosody peacefully co-exist in these languages. The speakers intuitively use only those pitch contours that do not overlap with the lexical tones. Even more, sometimes an exaggerated tone may serve as an intonation, and this is used in "ghetto talk". Tonal contours in normal speech Native speakers often dilute the lexical tones in ...


13

Also note that most of the growth of Israely Hebrew follows the invention of the radio and telephone. Radio and television are believed to be major harminizors of accents.


7

user6726's answer explains nicely what it means to have the stress marker in that position (it shows where the syllables are divided). But if your question was less "what does this notation mean" and more "why did the transcriber choose to break syllables there, instead of between the consonants"… There's a phonological maxim called the "Maximum Onset ...


6

It is often helpful to avoid voiceless sounds as much as possible in prosody stimuli, to get a clearer pitch track. For example, "Mary will win" has no voiceless sounds (from: Pierrehumbert, J. (2000). Tonal elements and their alignment. In Prosody: Theory and experiment (pp. 11-36). Springer Netherlands.). For demonstration purposes, you may also want to ...


6

It is standard to talk about the prosodic hierarchy, which is a theoretical construct that divides utterances into smaller, phonologically relevant constituents called phrases, which are in turn divided into smaller constituents called prosodic words, and so on. There is not an absolute consensus as to what the exact levels of the prosodic hierarchy are or ...


6

Contrary to the expectations of some commentators, doctor-patient corpora are available (under some conditions, needing to sign some licence and confidentially agreement) for research. The standard entry point for a search for such corpora is the CLARIN Virtual Language Observatory and entering doctor patient in the search slit gives currently twelve results....


5

The primary problem that metrical trees are intended to solve is the representational problem of what the rule system actually produces. Prior to L&P 77 and as exemplified by the SPE analysis of stress, stress was a feature with scalar values theoretically ranging from 0 to infinity, though in practice values were capped at 5 because of this embarassment ...


5

There is no dichotomy between tone languages and intonation languages. The available evidence indicates that all languages have intonational systems. Some languages have lexical stress, some have lexical tone, and some appear to have no form of word "prominence" (Ethiopic Semitic, for example). Pitch-accent is a dubious category, which has largely been ...


5

A lot of systems make little to no use of phonologically informed prosodic models. Some just can't, others are designed to and ostensibly do, and others have the potential to but don't. One widely used type of synthesis system involves the storage of hours of digitized human speech. In this type of system, which uses a method called unit selection, pieces ...


5

The linguistic proxy for pitch is tone. As far as I know there are no languages where a tone distinction is not at all implemented via F0 differences, but there are very many where the distinction includes things other than F0. The best-known examples of that are SE Asian tone languages like Vietnamese, where tonal differences involve amplitude, phonation ...


4

To the question Is Nigerian Standard English categorized as a discrete language, a dialect of English, or does it fall under some other category? the answer is: It is classified as a variety of English like British English, American English, or Australian English. All varieties of English have regional dialects and other kinds of lects and slangs.


4

Use the 'Pitch help' button in the object window when the Pitch object is selected. I'm going to simplify this answer a bit: Pitch estimation is inexact, so those numbers are basically the ranked candidates for pitch (y-axis, marked in Hz at intervals of 100 Hz) at that point in time (x-axis, marked in seconds). If you zoom in a little, you'll see they're ...


4

Here is an outline of what one would need to do to set up a ToBI system for some Kurdish language. I will make up somewhat hypothetical examples to make the point clearer. You first have to establish what the lexical contrasts are. You might find that there are two distinct words like [hɑɫo] "eagle" and [haɫu] "plum", which show that the vowels [o] and [u] "...


4

We study prosody because we observe that it is a meaningful, functional component of language. We transcribe it with the goal of abstractly understanding the contrastive elements that speakers seem to be perceiving and producing (and the system of interaction for those elements). This is analogous to other aspects of linguistics; e.g., we could roughly say ...


4

You can't use the standard f0 analysis. There's no such thing as standard. You need a framework e.g. Autosegmental-meterical Phonology (AM) supposing you are going to work in the phonological category But again this is when you are going to do a scientific study for a non-scientific observation you can take guess by looking at the pitch track but it's not ...


4

This is terminology from the theory of Lexical Phonology, which was popular at the time. In that theory, morphology and some parts of phonology are bundled together into a module called "Lexicon", which is responsible for creating words (stringing together morphemes and sorting out their pronunciation). Syntax happens later, and that is where words are ...


4

According to Draga Zec in The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology, the older model of onset, rime, nucleus, coda— —was superseded by the mora model— —which can account for everything the notion of 'rime' could, and more. It's mostly language-independent, but there's a distinction in that some languages have weightless C codas (as in (c) above), while in ...


3

It’s true that there is a learning curve, but I’m not sure what the alternative is. What does ‘f0 analysis’ mean here? How can you interpret changes in pitch, intensity, duration without an interpretive framework?The point of ToBI is to assign meaning to the physical observations (e.g., pitch, duration), which otherwise do not have meaning. To do this, pitch ...


3

There is some software available. For instance, the Get Rid of Your Accent app and the many Speech Therapy Apps. When it comes to speech therapy dealing with impediments, this is often so highly individualised that it almost always requires a trained person to intervene. That is not to say that some computer-assisted solutions would not be possible or ...


3

Definitely. Here's a waveform of my rendition of the word prosody with a declarative intonation: Duration - As you can see, it's quite clear where the chunks of unobstructed periodic voicing as opposed to aperiodic noise are (though sometimes the exact placement of a boundary between the two can be tricky), and it's quite simple to measure their duration. ...


3

According to R. Hickey ( Legacies of Colonial English. Studies in Transported Dialect.), the Nigerian English, as most other African Englishes, should be classified as a part of common meta-cluster merged together with South-Eastern Asian Englishes (pp. 510-522). On the other hand, if we pay closer attention to Kachru's Asian Englishes; Beyond the Canon( e....


3

You are right to say that the difference between these is one of stress. "White House" has a single stress on the first syllable, "white house" has an equal stress on both syllables. Linguistically the difference is that "White House" is a compound, while "white house" is an adjective-plus-noun phrase.


3

The fundamental forms the basis for the harmonic series: if F0 is 100 Hz, then harmonics are present at 200, 300, and so on. Humans can 'recover' (perhaps 'hallucinate') the original fundamental from the presence of these higher-frequency harmonics. This is also true for non-voice sounds. Here is a related Wikipedia reference.


3

"Prosodic phonology" is ambiguous, since it is used to refer to a specific generative theory of structural relations, as well as numerous often non-generative accounts of non-segmental phonology (as discussed here). Setting aside the non-specific version of "prosody", "prosodic phonology" refers to the hypothesis that there is a strict hierarchy of ...


3

No, on numerous levels. On a token level, sometimes a stressed syllable doesn't have higher F0 and could have a lower F0. More systematically, in some dialects of English there are intonational pitch overlays on word stress whereby stressed syllables are actually lower than unstressed syllables. You might conjecture that looking just at the robust patterns ...


3

The simple existence of level or contoured tones in a language is not a problem for the SPE theory of representations, which is why when the focus was on just reducing tone contrasts to some minimal system of pluses and minuses, it was always possible to come up with an arrangement. You find rising and falling tones along with level tones in various "...


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