15

As you noticed, there is something common between modern Romance and Germanic languages which is not shared by other Indo-European languages. It does not come from their ancestral languages (Latin and Proto-Germanic), but to the fact that they are part of a sprachbund, called Standard Average European (SAE). Many characteristics of SAE are obviously absent ...


13

It is not the case that pretty much all PGmc words are from PIE. Many well-known linguists have turned their attention to the problem of precisely why PGmc had such a large proportion of non-IE vocabulary. The classic estimate, as reviewed in Vennemann (2012; 'Was Proto-Germanic a creole language?') was one-third. Vennemann and his student Mailhammer are ...


12

There are some very controversial theories by the German linguist Theo Vennemann postulating a contact between Phoenician and proto-Germanic in the 6th to 3rd century BCE. The evidence for such contact is very thin and most linguists don't follow Vennemann. The specific question on the origin of the word God was asked here before, and the consensus is that ...


10

Even if these languages belong to the Indo-European family, there's a huge gap of time and space standing between Pre-Italic and Pre-Germanic languages. "A probable cladistic tree of the IE family"(a) shows e.g. that the Italo-Celtic subfamily and the "Central IE" subfamily (including Germanic) diverges long before Germanic and Indo-Iranian diverged. "...


7

Th-stopping of original Proto-Germanic voiced /d~ð/ to /d/ in all contexts is normal for Old English. It seems to be a common feature of West Germanic languages. The modern-day /ð/ in "father" is due to later changes. There's a relevant ELU question here: /ð/ → /d/ shift in English When researching my answer to it, I found Dental fricatives and stops in ...


7

The excellent German etymological dictionary by Pfeiffer has this: sieben Num. Ahd. sibun (8. Jh.), mhd. siben (md. siven), asächs. siҍun, mnd. sēven, sȫven, mnl. sēven, nl. zeven, aengl. seofon, engl. seven, anord. sjau (wohl umgebildet durch frühen Einfluß des unter acht, s. d., behandelten Zahlworts, vgl. got. ahtau), schwed. sju, got. sibun (...


7

Sangha is from Sanskrit *saṃ- (PIE *sem) "together" + *han- (PIE *gʷʰén) "strike, kill", and originally in Sanskrit meant "struck, put together". Hansa (referring to the Hanseatic league) is reconstructed to Proto-Germanic *hansō, and deeper relations are speculative. Germanic *h would derive from either PIE *k or *k'; PIE *k becomes Skt. [k] and PIE *k' ...


6

The word is without doubt Indo-European, the question is whether it is strictly Germanic or did it come via Latin. Pokorny says *laku is the source of Gr. λάκκος, lat. lacus, OIr. loch, and lagu etc. in Germanic: see the Texas collection for more attestations, which includes English "lake". For *leg, the "leak" root, Pokorny gives Armenian, Celtic and ...


6

Roughly, 500 BCE - 200 CE. There's no firm date at which Proto-Germanic stops being Proto-Indo-European, or becomes other Germanic languages. These are all artificial divisions imposed on a continuous process of evolution. However, when people talk about Proto-Germanic, they generally mean the last common ancestor of the modern Germanic languages, which has ...


6

These words are indeed cognate! They both stem from the PIE root *weyd-, meaning "to know" or "to perceive", along with less obvious cognates like "guide", "vision", and "eidolon". In Proto-Indo-European, the vowels *e, *o, and *[nothing] tended to alternate, a pattern called "ablaut". You can see traces of this still in the "strong verbs" which change ...


6

“Wine” is a prehistoric wander word occurring not only in Indo-European, but also in Semitic (Arabic wayn, Hebrew yayin etc.) and Kartvelian. It is possible that Germanic had it from Latin, but that is far from certain.


6

It's the result of lowering of /u/ before the consonants /h~x/, /hʷ~xʷ~ʍ/ and /r/. According to Winfred P. Lehmann in Gothic and the Reconstruction of Proto-Germanic, short /o/ and /u/ (and short /e/ and /i/) were nearly in complementary distribution in Gothic, but further sound changes that occured after the process of lowering created some exceptions to ...


6

The Wiktionary entry for "path" does a terrible job of making this clear, but the reconstructed Germanic form *paþaz is generally thought to be a loanword taken from some other Indo-European language, not a word inherited within Germanic from PIE. In this case, "path" would be indirectly related to "πάτος", but they wouldn't ...


6

Actually, alternation and sound changes between *p and *kʷ are common in IE languages. Compare Latin aqua and Oscan āpa (water) Latin vesper and Russian vecher < *kʷ (evening) Cornish pemp and Latin quinque (five) In this light you should consider the fact that they reconstruct two very close roots for PIE: lupos "fox" and u̯lq̆os "wolf". If we ...


6

It is simply false that "ease of pronunciation" is the reason behind sound changes, although this is a common misconception. In fact, nobody has ever devised a method of objectively quantifying the notion of articulatory difficulty. It is more likely that the change is a result of a chain of perceptual issues, reducing to the problem of distinguishing ...


6

According to the Norske Akademis Ordbok, gøy is from English “gay”.


5

German -in is from common Germanic and has been reconstructed as *-injō. In older forms of German it was -in, -inna, -īn, -inne and could still be found with the spelling -inn in recent centuries. It was known in Old English but its function is fulfilled in more modern English by -ess. It is not clear if it was a productive feature in Old English. Very ...


5

Linguistic evidence can be combined with other historical and archaeological evidence to form hypotheses, but the existence of loans alone cannot be used to prove this, because: Loans can exist happily alongside native words. The absence of a native word would be much more telling, but in a case like street, Germanic also had the ancestors of words like ...


5

Any answer given here will perforce be speculative, but... There is a well-known speech impediment, rhotacism (or de-rhotacization), whereby speakers cannot pronounce sounds similar to the alveolar trill and substitute others, often velar or uvular. It's not a stretch to suppose that, when a speech impediment is so common as rhotacism, it shows a tendency of ...


5

It is of course right that Gothic has Verner's Law variants -χ- / -ng- (spelled <h> /<gg>, respectively), as seen in your first two examples. It is also right that tuggo has a zero grade root. However, gateihan cannot be an ē-grade, as PIE *-ē- will develop to PGmc. *-ē₁-, which will result in Gothic -ē- as in Gothic nemun '(they) took' (...


4

Yes, en wise and de wissen share a root, but not as recently as Levenstein distance would suggest. de weise is more directly cognate with en wise, whereas de wissen is directly cognate with en wit, which until recently was also a verb. Yes, not coincidentally, wise and wit also share a root, but it split before the ancestor of English and German split. ...


4

As Anixx said, a shift from /kʷ/ or /kw/ to /p/ isn't at all unprecedented. To add a few more examples: The "P-Celtic" languages: Welsh pen ~ Irish ceann < */kʷenn/ "head" The "P-Italic" languages: Sabellic lupus ~ Latin *lucus < **luqvus "wolf" (*) Some dialects of Ancient Greek: Attic hippos ~ Latin ecus < eqvus "horse" Romanian: Romanian patru ~ ...


4

Spelling with -th- (15c.) reflects widespread phonetic shift in Middle English that turned -der to -ther in many words, perhaps reinforced in this case by Old Norse forms; spelling caught up to pronunciation in 1500s (compare mother (n.), weather (n.)). http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=father


4

From Bokmålsordboka: miskunn m1 (norrøntmisskunn, egentlig 'det å ikke skylde en for noe', -kunn beslektet med kunne med eldre betydning 'skylde') særlig i religiøst språk: (Guds) nåde A translation into English: miskunn masc (norse: misskunn, actually "the state of not owing anyone anything", -kunn being related to kunne, having the older meaning "to ...


3

There really isn't a great deal of "big picture" left. Of is just a shadow of its former lexical self. Originally, it came from the dual facts of separation -- A off B -- and relation -- A of B. In Middle English, final /f/ and /v/ weren't distinguished, so the word had two meanings. But the voiced of /əv/ reduced the vowel to shwa, while the voiceless ...


3

No - however that doesn't mean semitic words which described man-made goods did not enter the Proto-germanic wordstore when that good was traded - words such as this are known as 'Wanderwörter' or 'wandering words'. The Akkadian (the oldest known semitic language spoken in Babylon) word for silver was 'kaspum'. When refining was discovered refined silver was ...


3

They are indeed both from the same PIE root, which however is reconstructed with a laryngeal, *semH-. PGmc *sama- "same" is a thematic derivative from the o-grade of this root, *somH-o-, found in many other IE languages (Gk. ὅμος, Skt. sama-). PGmc *suma- "someone" is a thematic derivative from the zero grade of this root, *smH-o-, also with cognates e.g. ...


3

The "kw to p" sound change is fairly common throughout languages, for instance: romanian apă from Latin AQVA. It happens because the plosive was labialized in a way that its articulation point became bilabial. It also happened, for example: • in the Italic branch ("*wĺ̥kʷos" > lupus (via Osco-Umbrian)); • and the Hellenic branch ("*h₁éḱwos" > ῐ̔́ππος (...


3

I suppose the number of accepted PIE etymologies in Proto-Germanic may depend on the source you use. I would consider checking out the Leiden Proto-Germanic Etymological Dictionary by Lubotsky and Kroonen, the Leiden series dictionaries are probably the most up-to-date source on the matter (but of course not everyone agrees on the Leiden school's model of ...


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