26

It's also worth pointing out the term originates in German as Urgermanisch or Protogermanisch, and that the German for German is Deutsch, not Germanisch. It was intended to be more neutral w.r.t. living Germanic (germanische) languages than it ended up sounding in English.


26

Roman authors, at the latest from the time of Caesar, used "Germani" to identify all the "Germanic" tribes on both sides of the Rhine. So this usage has been established for a long time.


11

The other answers have all touched on different aspects of the question, but I'll try to combine them. Thousands of years ago, the Romans named much of north-central Europe Germānia, and the people who lived there Germānī (and things from that area Germānicus). It's unclear where this word came from; it's probably not related to the native Latin word ...


7

Names are to a good part conventions. It is historically long established to name the group of languages consisting of the Scandinavian languages (Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Icelandic; but not Finnish or Sami), German and Dutch, Frisian and English, Gothic and some more related languages "Germanic". The protolanguage is named Proto-Germanic ...


5

It is of course right that Gothic has Verner's Law variants -χ- / -ng- (spelled <h> /<gg>, respectively), as seen in your first two examples. It is also right that tuggo has a zero grade root. However, gateihan cannot be an ē-grade, as PIE *-ē- will develop to PGmc. *-ē₁-, which will result in Gothic -ē- as in Gothic nemun '(they) took' (...


3

As three seconds of looking it up (probably in the same place you found those forms to begin with) shows: PBS *pílˀnas < PIE *pl̥h₁nós > PGmc *fullaz PBS *wilkás < PIE *wĺ̥kʷos > PGmc *wulfaz PBS *źírˀna < PIE *ǵr̥h₂nóm > PGmc *kurną PBS *śírˀnāˀ < PIE *ḱr̥h₂-néh₂, *ḱr̥h₂-nó-m > PGmc *hurną So evidently the *i and *u are epenthetic ...


1

Different reasons. 'they speak/they spoke' in Protogermanic was something like 'sprekanþi/spurkun'. Note the different position of the 'r'. Our forebears made the word more regular with the Germans going for 'spr-' and '-k-' whilst the Angles going for 'sp-' but also '-k-'. 'world' and 'Welt' are both contactions of 'weraldiz' ('men-age' or 'generation'). ...


1

*a > *e before *z in NWGmc (see Ringe). Another example is *razdō > WGmc *rerdu > OE reord (https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/reord).


1

There are hundreds of sound laws associated with any language, they won't all get their own pithy name. This is just "the lengthening that happens when an ō-stem noun is derived from a strong verb". You might call this a vṛddhi-derivation (vṛddhi being a Sanskrit word used for the strongest grade of a vowel in a given system of vowel gradation), ...


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