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5

Phonemes are a theoretical construct, so the answer will depend to some extent on one's theoretical preferences; note that even for PIE many scholars posit independent vowel phonemes /i u/. But basically, after PIE the analysis you describe becomes much less attractive. The grounds for the allophonic analysis in PIE are that practically all cases of vocalic ...


5

By definition yes. They're called the a-colouring and o-colouring laryngeals entirely because of the effect they had on adjacent *e. Denying phonemic status to *a/ā is not universal, but it is done by the Leiden school, who analyse every *a as *h₂e and every *ā as *eh₂. This leads to a reconstructed language with very few vowels, but there are decent reasons ...


4

A number of languages: Basque, Kartvelian and Caucasic, have prefixal nominal morphology, especially prefixes a-, ma- and tsa-. None of this exists in PIE. So PIE belongs to another family than Basque, Kartvelian and Caucasic. A family ("Pontic") that would put together Caucasic and PIE does not make sense. Now the issue of crosslinguistic ...


5

PIE had a rich inflection system, as is echoed in the oldest attested daughter languages. Owing to this, if adjective and noun were each appropriately declined, the order could be either way. As to the actual order, there is not enough evidence to support an absolute trend either way in PIE. Remember that word order is more important in modern Germanic and ...


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