12

The only language that has "hello", "please" and "thank you" is English. Other languages might have other words that they use in somewhat similar circumstances, but I don't think any language has an expression that is used in all of the places that we use "thank you". Indeed, Americans and Brits don't use "thank you" in exactly the same way (they say "Cheers"...


8

Usually the most close relative to PIE among other Eurasiatic languages is considered Chukchi-Kamchadal family. You probably know this already, but the idea of a "Eurasiatic" language family isn't widely accepted. Nor is the idea of Indo-European being related to Austronesian, or Afro-Asiatic, or really anything else. The problem is, the comparative method'...


3

Unfortunately, there's no real consensus on any sort of "Proto-Australian" reconstruction. Some linguists like Dixon proposed "Australian" as an actual language family, with a common ancestor, but my impression is that this isn't popular any more: most linguists now consider Australian to be a Sprachbund containing multiple not-...


2

This part seems to have some presuppositions that need to be corrected: Is there a non-negligible chance that this correct guess could be actually caused by the shared root of the proto-human language First, it is possible that there was a single earlier language from which all current languages derive, but it is also possible that there is no single ...


1

There's hardly any discernable question. I presume you want to know what "proto" meant. "Proto" is not used as a word stand-alone in Linguistics, nor anywhere else in English that I'm aware of. It's used as a prefix in certain taxonomies with different implications and some degree of overlap in the meaning. A proto-stage is a later ...


1

This is really a question at the intersection of language and culture. It has nothing to do with proto-language or much to do with language as such. When you ask for words for 'hello' or 'thank you', you really encounter a whole lot of ways for people to manage interactions that gave rise to how those words are used in present-day English. Every culture has ...


1

Let me add to these already great answers what I read in a paper (I cannot recall, which): m is a nasal sound that can be produced while suckling on the breast, and suckling involves both lips (hence m is a bilabial nasal). I am not sure if the argument goes "They can utter the word for 'mom' while suckling" (unlikely) or "They associate the movement and the ...


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