17

Yes, it's been extensively studied; perhaps the first paper was Ron Langacker's 1966 "On Pronominalization and the Chain of Command". The major generalization seems to be statable as A pronoun may not both precede and command its antecedent. In the following examples Marilyn('s) and her are meant to be co-referential: I talked to Marilyn before her ...


4

In order to understand basic linguistic terminology, you might consult The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. In contrast to isolating languages with one morpheme per word, words in agglutinative languages have multiple morphemes per word. The challenge for NLP when working with agglutinative languages is detecting morpheme boundaries within words. ...


4

The issue of what happens with a proposition in case of a failed presuppositions is still not settled. There is a huge pile of literature on this matter, so let me just quickly sketch the three main positions, using the classic case of: (1) The present king of France is bald. According to Russell, (1) is just false, if the presupposition that there is a ...


2

You could first start by Yule, G., 2014. The study of language. Cambridge University Press. A more refined and specific introduction to linguistics would be Fromkin, V., Rodman, R. and Hyams, N., 2013. An introduction to language. Cengage Learning. also if you have hard time understanding linguistic terms you could take a look at the book Trask, R.L., 2013. ...


2

Givon does seem a little unclear here. I think he needs to allow for the traditional predicate nominal. In "She is a teacher", "is a teacher" means "teaches" -- it's a predicate, not a reference. In the other cases of non-referentials he's concerned with, a nominal which would ordinarily refer fails to refer to something in our real world because it's in ...


2

I think the most important part is this sentence: One of the most sensitive cross-linguistic tests for modality involves the referential behavior of NPs under various modal scopes (see Ch. 10). The canonical clause isn't construed as being under modal scopes: The unmarked clause-type in language - the main, declarative, affirmative clause - has, by ...


2

It's an edited volume, so each book chapter must be cited separately. Edited volumes are very common in linguistics and your style guide, supervisor, or librarian will be able to help you find the correct citation style.


1

Semantics, vol. 2 is authored by John Lyons, and published by Cambridge University press. That single-authored work would be cited as such. The item you are presumably referring to is Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning, edited by von Heusinger, Maienborn & Portner and published as Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication ...


1

Sentences with ambiguous antecedents are called 'Winograd schemas', and are useful as tests of strong A.I. In this case, you must understand that possession of the book passed to Sally, so 'she' most likely refers to Sally when the verb is 'to read'. The pronoun refers to either Mary or Sally -- there is no 'co-reference'.


1

Note that there are 2 ways of defining anaphors; the narrower definition you're using refers back to an antecedent; the broader definition includes cataphors, which refer forward to a later word or phrase, and exophors, which refer to something outside of the text (e.g. when you point and say "There it is!", "it" is an exophor). Anaphors can include: ...


1

Yes, it's anaphora, but it isn't referential anaphora. Following George Lakoff, most now distinguish identity of meaning anaphora (here the deleted V' is interpreted to mean the same as its antecedent V', "buy a present") from identity of reference anaphora. An example of the latter would be "I would have bought a present, but Suzie bought it first." The ...


1

Mayrhofer's first edition (KEWA) has definitions in both German and English. The much improved second edition (EWAia) is in German only. If you are serious about historical linguistics you need to know German. Both books are protected by copyright, but I suppose that you can find pirated electronic versions on some shady website.


1

The NLP content in this book needs updating, but there is a simple linguistics primer inside Foundations of Natural Language Processing by Hinrich Schütze and Chris Manning.


1

A case where a pronoun cannot be substituted by any definite description that may be recovered from the context is discussed by Walter Edelberg in his paper ‘A New Puzzle about Intentional Identity’ (Journal of Philosophical Logic 15 [1986]). Edelberg discusses the sentence in (1) from Peter Geach’s paper ‘Intentional Identity’ (Journal of Philosophy 74 [...


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