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One interesting marker of social distinctions is an avoidance register, a special way of speaking to certain family members. You might also hear this called mother-in-law language or hlonipha/isihlonipho, after some of the most famous examples. In general, languages with this feature have a special, usually very restricted register (=way of speaking), with ...


10

Niger-Congo languages tend to have a system of noun classes, somewhat similar to gender in Indo-European languages (in terms of adjectives having to agree with nouns, for instance), but consisting of several categories of entities instead. In Swahili, the ki-vi class, while mainly used for inanimate objects, can be used, quoting Wiktionary, "for things ...


9

English "honorifics" can denote marital status (for women only) - Mrs. vs Miss. (The newer Ms. marks the addressee as a woman without specifying marital status. All men are Mr. regardless of marital status. I've seen the newer Mx. as a gender-neutral honorific.) Dr. is very common (for doctors). I have seen a few others that denote specific professions but ...


9

Analogous to the word "maestro" in Western classical music to refer to conductors, Hindustani Classical music has "ustad" and "pandit" to address virtuoso performers. While either of them can be considered a translation of "maestro", in practice, "ustad" is used exclusively for Muslim virtuosi, and "pandit" for Hindu virtuosi. The titles in Pandit Ravi ...


6

If birthplace is a social distinction, then the written Japanese language marks it rigidly. I refer to the syllabic kana, not the logographic kanji where one character symbolizes a word or meaning. Syllabic kana uses two different alphabets: hiragana for native Japanese words and names, and katakana for foreign words and names. I’m no expert on the Japanese ...


6

Malay and Bahasa Indonesia have two separate plural pronouns for the English pronoun "we": "kami" - "we", excluding the person that you are addressing "kita" - "we", including the person that you are addressing You are asking for "social features", so perhaps this is borderline, but it has clear social implications which of the two words is being used. As ...


5

Chinese has the pronouns: 祂 (tā), third-person pronoun for God or gods It's used for God in the Bible, e.g. (traditional Chinese): 3 萬物都是藉著祂造的,受造之物沒有一樣不是藉著祂造的。 (bible.com) 3 Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. There's possibly also 祢 (second-person). 牠 (tā), third-person pronoun for animals (For comparison &...


2

There is the term hypercorrection for this kind of phenomena, although I am not sure if it is applicable to your example. A typical example for hypercorrection is the following: A native speaker of the palatinate dialect (rheinfränkisch) does not discriminate the sounds /i/ and /y/ in dialectal pronunciation. So High German kümmern becomes kimmern in the ...


2

Although this does not relate to social features, Japanese makes a distinction between animate and inanimate when it comes to "existing": ある (aru) means "to exist" (as in, "there exists") for inanimate things, while いる (iru) means the same but for animate beings: 机の上にぺんがある。(tsukue no ue ni pen ga aru) There is a pen on the ...


2

Austronesian languages often use different registers depending on the relative social status of the two speakers. A good example of this is Javanese. Javanese historically has three registers and modern standard Javanese has codified two. Take a look at the section Basic Vocabulary and Registers section. "Ngoko" is the the formal register and "Krama" is the ...


2

Unfortunately, we don't have a musically-informed theory of tonal phonetics, and there is very little literature which applies notions like "major third" etc. to pitch relations. Indeed, the literature on the acoustic phonetics of tone is rather restricted, given how many tone languages there are. We do have a reasonable understanding of the basic ...


1

The term "vocal register" is not a linguistic one, but there is a linguistic concept of "register" that is somewhat related. You would need to consult with speech & hearing scientists to get proper terminological use outside of linguistics. In its linguistic use, it primarily refers to local pitch range, i.e. the pitch of the highest and lowest tone at ...


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