6

The answer depends on what you mean by "learning" the language. It's a common misconception that all linguists are fluent in a great number of languages, in the sense of being able to read or speak with native-like proficiency. While some linguists can speak five languages fluently, many others can't, and some highly-respected linguists speak only a single ...


6

Using the Corpus Query Processor or a similar corpus engine with a suitable corpus to answer your question, the query [word="[Ii]ron.*"][word=".*"] and a frequency breakdown on the types does the job. The more difficult thing is finding a "suitable" corpus, news, science, or literary texts will give different ranking lists.


4

They made a movie of it. Look it up in the Oxford English Dictionary (available online through a library near you). This would give the first published instance, not spoken instance. Also it covers modern English: some words are attested in Old English (the OED will tell you). It's not guaranteed that they actually caught every first instance, but nothing is ...


4

This paper is copyrighted and when your local university library does not hold it, you can buy it (at a price that may be prohibitive for you, or due to some sanctions the paper may not be delivered to the country you are living in). In Germany, there is a system called Fernleihe: When the local library does not hold a paper, you can get it from another ...


3

If I understand the question correctly, then answer is yes. In short, languages are not 1:1 and that includes function words. That is why translation is hard and, in some cases, impossible. Note that there is no standard set of words that should be opaque single words, the modern English set is certainly not the standard. Now, my question is: does ...


3

The names for the metadata fields that you drop sound like Dublin Core and the linked Wikipedia article has some explanation and further links. Note that Dublin Core metatada fields can occur in any multiplicity in your description, including 0—every metadata field is optional. Fill as many metadata fields as you can, and don't hesitate to use some of them (...


3

This could get too complicated to pursue in comments. I've seen a seat of the pants number of 10 per variable: you might read this. When you've sorted out the logical structure of the question, you should talk to a statistical consultant. The goal would be to have enough talkers that you won't have accidentally omitted some important group. I am betting that ...


3

Was the work of Aristotle science? Were geocentric theories of the universe science? Science is related to methodology within a given framework of understanding, and to the ways of evolving that framework. It is necessarily historical and academic, whatever the subject, as it can only be a cooperative endeavor in constant evolution. Regarding language, there ...


3

There are two senses of grammar. The popular sense is the prescriptive sense, which you may learn a bit about in school when they tell you that you shouldn't end a sentence with a preposition, or you shouldn't say "Me and Jim are leaving". The elements of style by Strunk & White contains numerous such prescriptions. The significance of "...


3

Using a BYU corpus, you can search for iron* _nn* where the first part matches words starting with “iron” and the second part matches nouns. It’s as simple as typing that into the search box, though there are more complicated options available. The two BYU corpora I use the most are the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National ...


3

In my experience, it is not common for professional linguists to study languages in the sense of general language acquisition study (as opposed to focused technical research). By "study" I mean "study with some diligence" equivalent to let's say equivalent to 75 classroom hours, as opposed to "show up for a couple of weeks and give up". By "professional ...


2

The starting point for a corpus search is the Virtual Language Observatory by the European CLARIN ERIC. Entering the words English Spanish comparable corpus in the search slit gives nine results, among them EuroParl-UdS.


2

A caveat: I'm experiencing the tail end of a three day migraine. This answer may not be as clear as I'd like. The nature of the cognitive structures that make up linguistic knowledge is still a very open question. In fact, the nature of cognitive structures in general is still hotly contested (and rightly so). Before I answer your questions, I think a ...


2

This part seems to have some presuppositions that need to be corrected: Is there a non-negligible chance that this correct guess could be actually caused by the shared root of the proto-human language First, it is possible that there was a single earlier language from which all current languages derive, but it is also possible that there is no single ...


2

The following is what I see. As pointed out by @jlawler above, such constructions are often considered alongside other periphrastic constructions. It is believed that the main purpose they serve is making speech more expressive. Hence, you need to consider the reasons why this necessity typically arises. I guess it has something to do with phonetic ...


1

Not knowing much about aphasia, I'll give it a shot from a general perspective: Apparently you want to try some music treatment for patients who are affected in different ways and degrees by aphasia. For that, you collected a number of exercises(?) and tests from literature written by people who had similar ideas, to expand on their work. To test efficiency,...


1

Try here: Menu of free parallel texts Spanish English. (But these texts would not be as carefully controlled as you asked.)


1

It's a circular answer, but light verbs are particularly prominent as a strategy in borrowing verbs from other languages, and that is because verbs are a more closed class than nouns. We use light verbs out of a slight reluctance to use novel full verbs.


1

In Anglo-Saxon lēof 'beloved, dear' was used in a similar manner, though it was not as formal. e.g. "lēofa Bēowulf" 'dear Beowulf', "lēof ealdormann" 'Mister Alderman'. In Old Norse some sources have herra 'venerable' with a usage similar to "master, lord".


1

One solution is to use a linguistic corpus like the Corpus of Contemporary American English (or, if you can program, build your own corpus for your purposes, for example using Python NLTK). The sample size is smaller than searching the entire web, but it's usually enough to be significant. You can do your own web scraping if you need more data (or just use ...


1

Per your request, this is only an opinion... Some speakers will align a question's construction pattern with an answer. The LVC question, "Did you make a decision?" Will result in the LVC response, "Yes, I made a decision." Single word imperatives like "decide" are often considered time-sensitive orders. From a pragmatics of politeness perspective, "make a ...


1

Japanese has rainen, raigetsu, raishuu (next year, next month, next week) as well as sarainen, saraigetsu and saraishuu (the year after next, the month after next and the week after next). Japanese has words for previous year, month, week day as well but they are not quite so regular, partly because of the alternation of words of Chinese and Japanese. Like ...


1

I try to avoid "survey/list" questions like these to which there's no right answer, but here's one... My aunt, a linguist and translator in Nepal, reports that the Indo-Aryan language Maithili has a word that shares the meanings "yesterday" and "tomorrow". In other words, it means "one day removed" and is qualified by a phrase like "that is yet to come" or "...


1

Look up the "Chomsky hierarchy" and "context free language". Context free phrase structure grammar describes certain computer languages (the first was Algol 60, I think) and has been proposed as a theory of human languages (in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar), though Chomsky had argued against this in his classic book Syntactic Structures.


1

If you're trying to gather information on aphasia, you'll have much more luck consulting the literature of Speech/Language Science or Neuropsychology than you will in the Linguistics literature. Speech/Language Sci departments & Neuropsychologists educate not only the neuropsychologists & speech/language therapists who assess and treat aphasia but ...


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