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11

In Finnish, most consonants including the [r] have a long-short distinction. There are plenty of minimal pairs including varas (thief) vs varras (skewer).


10

Phoible is a useful database for phonological questions containing more than 3000 inventories for more than 2000 languages They have just 19 inventories with a /ʀ/ (i.e. with a phonemic uvular trill). Additionally, 2 inventories with a /ʁ/ (i.e. a phonemic voiced uvular fricative) have a [ʀ] as an allophone. In some of these, [r] is given as an allophone, so ...


10

(Due to finding a source that I think provides an even better example than my previous answer, I've updated this post). Arop-Lokep In “Initial and Medial Geminate Trills in Arop-Lokep,” by Raymond, Mary, and Steve Parker (Journal of the International Phonetic Association, vol. 35, no. 1, 2005, pp. 99–111. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/44526399. Accessed 17 ...


10

In Arabic, all consonants, including /r/, can be geminated in non-initial position. There are minimal pairs like barada "he was cold" vs barrada "he cooled (something)".


9

There is not a single R-sound in French. There are at least two rhotic sounds considered "standard": [ʁ] and [χ] (voiced and voiceless uvular fricatives respectively), and not long ago the Paris dialect had a uvular trill [ʀ] instead (listen to Edith Piaf). But French is not only the educated standard or the Paris dialect; in Southern France older speakers ...


9

Sort of. The short answer is that the uvular R of, say, German and Dutch is probably in origin an independent development from the French uvular (as it is in Northumbrian English.) It is true that the eventual rise of the Parisian uvular is what helped it to spread. Were it not for the rise of the Parisian /ʀ/ in the 19th century, uvular Rs throughout ...


8

In Hungarian, all consonants have long and short versions, and there are many minimal pairs. Examples: pára /paːrɒ/ "fog/steam/condensation" | párra /paːrːɒ/ "onto the pair" vére /veːrɛ/ "his blood" | vérre /veːrːɛ/ "to blood" ara /ɒrɒ/ "macaw" | arra /ɒrːɒ/ "that way"


7

According to Wikipedia, Slovak does contrast /r/ and /rː/, but the Journal of IPA on Slovak says that the geminated /r/ (i.e. /rː/) is considered an allophone of /r/ because there are no minimal pairs of /r/ and /rː/. They're not in complementary distribution: the geminated /r/ ‘can only occur in the syllable nucleus’, the short /r/ ‘in the nucleus and ...


6

There's no certain answer to this question, as the various realizations of /r/ in OE/ME (and in early Germanic languages generally) are far from straightforwardly clear. A good recent article by Piotr Gąsiorowski, arguing that /r/ was already highly variable in OE, can be found here.


5

Any answer given here will perforce be speculative, but... There is a well-known speech impediment, rhotacism (or de-rhotacization), whereby speakers cannot pronounce sounds similar to the alveolar trill and substitute others, often velar or uvular. It's not a stretch to suppose that, when a speech impediment is so common as rhotacism, it shows a tendency of ...


4

Another example is (certain Eritrean dialects of) Tigrinya. There is a trill which can be transcribed in IPA as [r], a clear alveolar trill, which is phonologically /R:/ (using "R" to unify tap and trill). Singleton /R/ is phonetically [ɾ]. Examples: [har:i] "silk", [baħaɾi] "sea". The dorsals /k, k', g/ lenite under obscure ...


2

I'm not sure I entirely understand the question, but there are a lot of reasons why in a phonological analysis of English, r-colored vowels might be treated as something other than a vowel + rhotic consonant sequence. In many varieties of American English, when we try to use that kind of analysis, we end up with an unusual set of allowed vowel + /r/ ...


2

The question has a contradictory presupposition: one might care that phonemically-speaking an /ə/ followed by a rhotic consonant in the same syllable has its pronunciation impacted The contradiction arises from limiting this to "phonemically-speaking", but then asks about having "pronunciation impacted". Pronunciation is phonetics, ...


2

According to A Course in Phonetics by Peter Ladefoged and Keith Johnson, Icelandic also contrasts [r] and [rː]. They also give a minimal pair and a spectrograph: [sauːra] ‘wound’ [saurːa] ‘sore’ (p186)


2

Cruttenden notes "There are more phonetic variations of the /r/ phoneme than of any other English consonants." (Gimson's Pronunciation of English, 2001.207) Among the variations in British English he notes are: [ɾ] alveolar tap - in RP and Liverpool and Newcastle dialects [ɹ] post-alveolar approximant - in RP and some Scottish dialects [ʋ] labiodental ...


2

I'll limit a few examples to the varieties of English found in the UK here. Northumbria There's a phenomenon known as the Northumbrian Burr in Northumbria in the North of England wereby (older) spreakers "typically pronounced as a voiced uvular fricative, often with accompanying lip-rounding ([ʁ(ʷ)])". The Survey of English Dialects 1950-61 even states that ...


2

Arabic is a one such language, distinguishing between /r/ and /ʁ/, the latter oscillating between a vibrant and fricative pronunciation. I believe the uvular trill is not, however, considered an R type sound, e.g. in terms of phonotactics. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_phonology Reg. sanskrit, the two Rs are the same realisation, just one is syllabic, ...


1

A perceptual proximity can explain how two sounds with different articulatory features can be related diachronically. The perception is also an element to take into account in the evolution of the languages.


1

The standard explanation, insofar as it seems mysterious given the different articulators of the sounds, is that uvulars and lingual rhotics have in common a lowering of F3 – they sound similar. This page gives a list of claimed cases of "guttural r" (also this). It is reasonably likely that it arrived by boat in southern Norway and Sweden, and Denmark is ...


1

With the possible exception of Ancient Egyptian where no grapheme for "l" existed, the r/l distinction seems to be well-maintained in the Afroasiatic languages. It exists in Semitic, Berber, Chadic, and Cushitic. Also the Coptic language has it.


1

Between them, Tunny and Danger Fourpence have nicely covered much of Great Britain north of London. Southwest England The Westcountry dialect has the stereotypical retroflex "pirate" R, as demonstrated by Sam in the Lord Of The Rings films (though frankly his accent makes me cringe and sounds to me more like a bad attempt at Irish). Westcountry is,...


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