17

They aren't mutually intelligible at all. Lithuanian is a Baltic language, Romanian is a Romance language. Yes, they're related (both are Indo-European), but no more so than, say, English and Russian.


9

The greeting/parting distinction In many languages there is a distinction between the greeting upon meeting eg Good day! and the farewell upon parting Have a good day! The comparison table in the question mixes those two distinct senses, and also mixes evening and night. In Italian there is Buon giorno! and Buona sera! but also Buona giornata! and Buona ...


8

This may sound weird, but it's not. Well, in fact, it is very weird indeed. –– With equal right one might say that Romania should correctly be called Wales. –– If that joke is lost on you, read the rest of this answer: there is nothing incorrect to observe. There is just a lot of culture and language evolution over quite a few centuries and thus a no ...


8

Well, the Dacians spoke a language called Dacian. Unfortunately, there is almost nothing we really know about their language, there are no surviving inscriptions or other texts. Essentially all we have are some toponyms and personal names, and a list of about five dozen plant names (see, e.g., https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Dacian_plant_names). With ...


7

The short answer: centuries of use of Old Church Slavonic instead of Latin or Romanian as a written language BUT note there is a tendency towards analytic tenses in spoken languages across Europe. The long answer: Questions of the form "Why?" in historical linguistics are not necessarily answerable, but we can try. One theory could be that there was some ...


7

wrt. the other answer: Romanian sfânt does NOT come from Latin sanctum, but from Slavic svętъ (compare with Polish święty); most Romanian (and Hungarian) Slavic borrowings turned the nasal vowels (which were de-nasalized in most Slavic languages) into vowel + n (vz. luncă, rând, mândru, muncă, smântână, etc). Romanian /ɨ/ may also come from any vowel + /n/ ...


6

"Torpedo* in the meaning of dashboard / front panel in a car also exists in Ukrainian. Briefly, the etymology seems to be quite complicated: Latin torpedo — "electric ray"; 19th century — sea mine; 1870's — self-propelled sea mine; 1900's — cigar-shaped racing car; Later, the meaning has changed towards "hood", and further to "dashboard/front panel". 1. ...


6

Old French most certainly retained a fully functional case system (cas sujet et cas régime) at least up to the XIVth century, perhaps up to the XVth century in eastern parts of France (and of course retains case inflections for pronouns to this day, e.g me/moi). This case system is a direct descendant of the Latin one. The subject is very well documented so ...


6

As mentioned in Wikipedia article, ul is the definite article for (many) masculine and neuter nouns. E.g. cal-->calul i.e. horse-->the horse. Commonly and informally, ul is reduced to u.


6

I will first answer to the title of the question, namely "What is the substrate of Romanian language". Romanian could have several substrate layers. The most frequent one is the Dacian layer, which was the language spoken in the region of Romania prior to the adoption of Latin. Dacian was an Indo-European language for which we have very limited material (...


6

The Latin-Romanian sound correspondences exclude any possibility for the Romanian iubi 'to love' to be a descendant of the Latin iubeō (iubēre, iussī, iussum) 'command, order'. Latin ē/oe and i became Romanian /e/: Front vowels changed as follows: • ē/oe and i became /e/. • ī became /i/. e/ae became: • /ɛ/ in stressed syllables • /e/ in unstressed syllables ...


3

Why is this? For one very simple reason : in Romanian, unless one does not purposefully wish to sound either poetic or theatrical, the adjective follows the noun rather than preceding it. Therefore, Noapte buna !, Ziua buna !, S(e)ara buna !, O dupa-amiaza placuta !, Duminica placuta ! or O saptamana frumoasa (sa aveti) ! are actually quite standard. So a ...


3

Besides the rather large semantic shift from "to command" to "to love", there is another argument against the derivation of Romanian iubi from Latin iubeo: Latin iubeo is an irregular verb having the perfect iussi and the past participle iussum. If this verb is continuated in Romanian, one would expect a continuation of the principle parts as well. On the ...


3

Some think that the Romanian substrate was a language related to modern-day Albanian, but I'm not sure how solid the evidence for this connection is. For example, Romanian viezure "badger" and Albanian vjedull "badger" seem to be related (neither is clearly of Latin origin), but it is unknown if they are from a common substrate, or if the word came to ...


2

An answer would be that Romanian is part of a different corpus of Latinized area of Europe than the rest of the surviving Romance languages. While the substratum of the first is Illirian-Thracian-Dacian (a vast linguistic area that we know little of, but that can be imagined as rather diverse but also constituted by related languages), that of the Western ...


2

For all I know know as a Romanian myself who has done grammar in school, Romanian has more than 5 tenses. First of all, we have verbal modes. These are personal and impersonal. The personal modes are Indicative, Conjunctive, Conditional Optional and Imperative. The non-personal ones are Infinitive, Participle, Gerund and Supine. Some have tenses: ...


2

It is a very difficult question, because it is difficult to know exactly what was happening at the time to trigger such things without many proofs. I would say that it was probably a way the slavic people found more pleasant to say "I love you" insted of using a latin word, supposing a "pidgin-like" contact. Romans may have spread their language, but some ...


1

"Amor" is a neologism in Romanian, much more recent than the Middle Ages suggested in another answer. Romanian dictionaries mark Latin as its origin, because it entered the language for the first time probably in the 18th century within the Transylvanian School movement which was committed to promoting Latinity. That couldn't have affected the common ...


1

Your theory can well explain why the name stuck, but assumption of an ignorant scribe would need more evidence to be convincing. It's not very likely in matters of hegemony. The assumption of public indifference can explain why the name stuck, at last. The possibility that the name were inhereted of old can't be discounted either. Late attestation usually ...


1

In Albanian it's Natën e mirë - Night good , which is the original order of Name Adjective order of IndoEuropean languages, rather than the inverted order found in most western languages. So even though Romanian is a Romance language, it's a Romance language as spoken by Balkan people.


1

To sum it up: Romanian substrate is more complex than what the formula Romanian=Latin+Dacian might suggest, and Romanian is not just "Latin spoken by Dacians". The Dacians by themselves (and their language) do not count for the entire Romanian « substrate » (linguistic or otherwise). In this sense, the substrate of proto-Daco-Romanian (the neo-Latin ...


1

To be all fair and square to both sides of this discussion, the actual truth can go either way. However, in defense of those who say that Dacian was already related to Latin, it makes more sense than you think, if you but try to think it over. This may explain the many dissimilarities between Romanian and other Romance languages, mainly why so many ...


1

In French: the word meaning field champs comes from campus nominative rather than campum accusative I suppose the word republique comes from res publica nominative rather than rem publicam accusative.


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