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60

The World Atlas of Language Structures Online Chapter 49 lists 84 languages with at least 6 distinct cases (24 of them with at least 10 cases). A number of them are spoken in remote areas of Australia or South America where schooling is limited, if it happens at all. As far as I know, speakers of these languages have no problem using the case system in an ...


38

The question has been well answered for specifics. I'd only want to add that a little thought would have answered it in general: most of language learning happens before a learner ever goes to school, so level of schooling cannot possibly be relevant. Furthermore, for most of human history, most people have been unschooled, unlettered, and illiterate, and in ...


38

Though as some other posters have noted, some Russians may use dialect case forms, anyone who is out of diapers uses the full case system. Case is a core concept of the language. The very idea that using cases is a burden is alien to Russian. If you hear someone speaking Russian while ignoring case and gender, he isn't uneducated, he is a foreigner. He ...


27

Morphological complexity as such as is not related to the level of schooling. Some of the most morphologically complex languages are spoken by people without any education. So, all Russian and German speakers (including those with no formal schooling) use the morphological cases in their respective languages. So did speakers of Vulgar Latin which was really ...


26

WARNING: The question is sooo many-sided, it is very wide and can be split into at least 3 different questions. I'll answer it all, don't tell me later that you haven't been warned the answer would be long. First of all, this letter has no sound of its own. The main function of the soft sign <Ь> in Russian is to change the sound of the consonant letter ...


24

All people use cases in Russian. Uneducated people may make some typical mistakes however, so use cases and other things wrongly, but the number of such possible characteristic mistakes is limited. For instance. Standard speech requires use of indeclinable possessive pronoun "их" "their". But uneducated people may decline it, adding the ending "ихний", "...


19

I live in Poland, and my first language is Polish, a slavic language somewhat related to Russian, with a quite complicated case system. From my experience, I can confirm what others have written: Every one who normally learned Polish in his or her childhood is able to use the case system with only occasional minor mistakes, usually involving one of several ...


18

Cases are properly used by pre-school children Any kid who can speak the language can use the cases properly. There may be edge cases where "the prescribed way to say this is X, don't use Y" - which refers to prescriptive vs descriptive language principles, and perhaps has some parallels to things like British 'acquired pronounciation'. The full case ...


17

People who natively speak a language that has grammatical cases do generally use them commonly and consistently. Like all language features, case systems do also evolve, and it's quite common for there to be variation in case use between different dialects of a language, or e.g. between literary and colloquial language, but (at least from a descriptive ...


17

First of all, it varies to some extent. People from Ural region, people from Rostov-on-Don, people from Vyatka region have quite recognisable pronunciation norms. The same with vocabulary, there's some words that are used only in a specific region, like "чкаться" in Bryansk. However if we'll come up with some contrive metrics of language homogeneity ...


10

You've mixed a bunch of words of very different origin with a bunch of quite weak and poorly defined assumptions (like no considerable interactions between Russians and Swedes). It comes as no surprise that Swedish två and Russian two both have PIE origin deriving from dwóh root. If you think about it, English two looks pretty much similar to "два&...


9

This is because they are not minimal pairs. They differ in a consonant. The "бить" has soft б while "быть" has hard б.


9

Absolutely not. Its similar to asking if Kannada word alla, which is a negation suffix and also a separate word for no/not, is same as the Islamic deity. It's just coincidence. They are false friends. This da phrase ending, which sort of replaces dude in English, is actually a suffix and it is not of Kannada origin. It is of Tamil origin and it is a bona ...


9

@shabunc has treated the other examples already, so I will say something about the bear's service: The same idiom is also present in German Bärendienst and it is traced to a fable by La Fontaine titled 'The bear and the garden lover' (my translation of the title) where the bear accidentally kills the garden lover when trying to chase off a fly.


8

Russian ⟨ы⟩ can be a little difficult to master, especially if one wishes for a native-like pronunciation. When stressed, the vowel in question is a close central unrounded vowel: IPA /ɨ/. But, as with all "hard vowels" in Russian, it strongly velarizes any preceding consonant, which manifests as a noticeable glide after the consonant and before ⟨ы⟩. So, ты ...


7

In the old Slavic languages, the sound [o] could never follow the palatalized consonants (which in those times also included the hushing consonants Ш [ʃ], Ж [ʒ], Ч [tʃ], Щ [ʃtʲ], and also Ц [tsʲ]), since in the Proto-Slavic language [o] in this position had changed into [e]. In the 12th-16th centuries in the Russian language, the pronunciation of the ...


7

TL;DR: The difference between the two pairs is substantial. Native speakers intuitively use phones so not to get trapped into the adjacent phoneme. The differences between [ʃ ʒ] and [ʂ ʐ] are pretty much noticeable. To give you a taste, check this YouTube video. It is spoken mainly in Ukrainian, and there are several [ʃ], like in пішов ("went") (...


6

I am not sure about “intrinsic”. It is, however, main-stream Indo-Europeanist theory that the suffix * -es marks both the genitive singular and the nominative plural m/f in proto-Indo-European. Though I would concede that this does not really answer your question but merely projects it back to a hypothetical proto-language.


6

The word for ‘dog’ is *ḱuon, hence Skt śvā. The word for ‘young’ is *ken, Skt kanyā etc. The two stems cannot be related.


6

My guess is that this is not a matter of the language, but rather of the sound quality. Most films come with the original audio in (American) English where the actors speak right during the acting into the microphone placed somewhere in the background at the set. Synchronisations in other languages, however, are recorded in a studio where the synchronisers ...


6

These words are related, but they do not have any known cognates outside of Germanic and Balto-Slavic. “Proto-Indo-European *dʰayl-, *dʰoyl-“ (as posited on Wikipedia) is highly uncertain. It has been suggested that it is a substrate word. See the etymology section here: https://www.dwds.de/wb/Teil


6

Sebastian Shaumyan proposed an order-free theory of syntax which has some currency in the U.S. However, I don't know whether Shaumyan's work was the historical source of the Western versions. I heard him lecture at the 1969 Linguistic Summer Institute at Ohio State. I think he wrote in Russian, though he was Armenian. A version of the order-free theory was ...


5

The first one is called Поцелуев мост (Potseluev Bridge or literally Bridge of Kisses) and the second one Утро (Morning). The artist is Покидышев (Pokidyshev). This transliteration table is useful when you need to translate Russian but aren't familiar with the Cyrillic alphabet. I use it with Google Translate.


5

The simplest way is probably this: pronounce the [u] sound (as in ’soon’, for example) and then try to unround your lips, without changing the position of the tongue.


5

You can find examples of words borrowed into Russian language on Wiktionary RU. However, this is far from being a comprehensive list. The number of words borrowed from Turkic languages is somewhere around 2-4 thousand. Probably the largest number of words was borrowed by Russian language from Church-Slavonic.


5

My guess is this question has more to do with history and culture than language per se. You can say that English was influenced by French 'a lot' due to the Norman conquest (you can probably speak of 'specific source' of influence in this case). In this sense there is no any specific modern national language from which Russian had to borrow on a massive ...


5

As it was mentioned in the comments, you have already given an answer. But let us make it more obvious. Russian чары has a convincing Proto-Slavic reconstruction *čarъ (this word has many Slavic cognates) and also seems to have the same root as Avestan kǝrǝnaoiti 'means', Lithuanian kẽras 'magic', etc. (Чары 'charm' was taken as a means of reaching one's ...


5

The best reference on Old Novgorod is Andrey Zaliznyak's 2004 monograph, Древненовгородский диалект (Drevnenovgorodskij dialekt, 2nd ed.), freely available online https://inslav.ru/publication/zaliznyak-drevnenovgorodskiy-dialekt-2-e-izd-m-2004 (this is the official website of the Institute of Slavic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences) There’s an ...


4

German (it seems quite analytic so not too dependent on case for expressing meaning? This is true only to a certain extent: it is quite frequently possible to choose between alternative constructions which use different cases and/or prepositions also, articles can be used to mark the case. So you can often avoid a case you don't like (like in English: use ...


4

This is just a tiny bit of anecdotal evidence and a remainder that being competent at something doesn't require comprehension (as Daniel Dannet put it). While it is true, that native speakers (my mother tongue is Russian) have very good command of this aspect of the language, the kind of knowledge is often not well-understood by the speakers. The ...


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