25

In Korean, 오른쪽 wolunccwok "right (direction)" comes from 옳- wolh- "correct" + -은 -un (Attributive) + 쪽 ccwok "direction", literally meaning "the correct direction". Another word for "right side", 바른편 palunphyen, literally means "The correct side" as well. Similarly, 왼쪽 oynccwok "left (direction)" comes from 외- oy- "crooked" + -ㄴ -n (Attributive) + 쪽 ccwok "...


18

A web search on "metaphor low pitch" yields, among others, these references: The Metaphor of "High" and "Low" in Pitch ... Greek music theorists of antiquity spoke not of "high" and "low" but of "sharpness" and "heaviness"; in Bali and Java pitches are not "high" and "low" but "small" and "large"; and among the Suyá of the Amazon basin, pitches are not "...


15

It exists in semitic languages. "ymn" has directional right as its radical sense in the Ethiopian semitic languages but is also commonly used for good news, e.g., Yemane is a common name there, like Yaman in arabic languages. (I had always assumed the country name Yemen drew from the same root but Wikipedia claims that is just folk etymology: "One etymology ...


12

Nán (南) is "south" in Chinese. Addendum: the Middle Chinese form assumed by Sagert & Baxter is nom. The reconstructions from their book are available here.


11

I'll speak for the research tradition I work in, namely Construction Grammar. In CxG you have something called constructions which are symbolic units that directly link form and meaning. A construction can the be a word, say tree, but it also can be an idiom kick the bucket, or a semifixed construction [the mother of all X] or [what is X doing Y] (what is ...


11

Edit to clarify that I used the full declaration and not only the article 1 The way to answer your question is to have a sample of the same long text translated in many languages. The only example I know is the universal declaration of human right, which has 380 reasonably complete translations hosted at http://www.unicode.org/udhr/. Then one just has to ...


11

Their presence across all known world languages constitutes a linguistic universal according to research from Allan and Burridge (1991) Refer to this article here. And to this paper, here As @Wilson interestingly points out, it's not easy to say, "There exists one", also because, where do you draw a line and say this particular saying is not a Euphemism for ...


10

These two forms are not equivalent. It is true that anywhere the -se forms are used in Spanish, the -ra forms can be used, but the opposite is not true. So while both these pairs are fully equivalent: No estaba seguro de que viniera/viniese. [both imperfect subjunctive forms freely interchangeable](I wasn’t sure he was coming.) Después de que llegara/...


10

It looks as if the courses you intend to take are introductory courses, so it's not likely that you need too much background knowledge. If so, you should be set just reading one introductory book to linguistics, which will cover the basics of all the subdisciplines in linguistics. There are many books to choose from here. Some of them are: a) Edward Finegan:...


10

Latin vir, Sanskrit vīra-, Avestan vīra-, Old Irish fer, Lithuanian výras, Gothic wair, all mean “man” and all derive from Indo-European *wīro- (or *uiH-ro).


10

I feel like this is more of a cultural question than a linguistic one. Euphemisms do not require the currently spoken language to accommodate them. Euphemisms rely on a person's understanding that A is a less extreme version of B, regardless of the language of the words that are being spoken. The only way you could have a language where a particular ...


9

As a native Hebrew speaker i have ever heard the root שׂ.ל.מ (s.l.m), or any of it conjugations used in the context of submission. Neither does the root שׁ.ל.מ (Sh.l.m). The word שלם (shalem) means, as the Wikipedia article states, whole (and all its derived meanings like perfect or or complete) or peace. Here is the Wiktionary entry on the root and its ...


9

See and look are Sense Verbs. They are, in fact, the two distinct English sense verbs for vision. There are three varieties of English sense verbs, following the pattern of hear, listen, sound (only sense verbs of hearing have three distinct forms; sight has two, and the others one apiece) (Non-Volitional verb) I heard the song I saw the painting I tasted ...


9

First, just to note, *kweþaną didn't completely die out: English "quoth" is archaic but still recognizable, and Icelandic kveða is still in active use. But you're absolutely right about the general trend that killed off most descendants of *kweþaną. It's now quite rare across the Germanic languages, when it used to be widespread. It's hard to say why ...


8

You cannot talk about semantics without pragmatics and vice versa, but a decent way to cut the cake is a broadly relevance-theoretic view. Semantics is the stable aspects of encoded meaning which are always triggered and make a predictable contribution to the final interpretation (however minimal that encoded stuff might be). Pragmatics is the inferred and ...


8

I'm currently completing a Masters of Linguistics, specializing in Computational Linguistics, after a Software Engineering undergrad so I think my experience might be relevant to you. I think you may be a bit disappointed by the actual math involved in linguistics. Setting aside Computational Linguistics, the only real math I see is statistical analysis ...


8

This is what they recommend at Oxford as introductory textbooks to students starting a Masters' in Linguistics. Background and reference: Macaulay, Monica. (2006) Surviving Linguistics: A Guide for Graduate Students. Cascadilla Press. *Matthews, P. H. (2007) Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics. Oxford University Press. Pinker, Steven. (2000) The ...


8

This is of course highly debated, but some linguists would answer yes, there is a small set of words/concepts common to all natural human languages. The major theory currently representing this view is the Natural Semantic Metalanguage, which posits that there are around 66 core 'semantic primes' which are both irreducible and universal. These primes are ...


8

Anna Wierzbicka wrote a chapter in her 1996 text Semantics: Primes and Universals on the semantics of colour terms. In this chapter she presents a theory where colours are understood according to their similarity to exemplars (a type of prototype theory). For example, here are two explications for the English colour terms red and yellow: X is red. = ...


8

It's hard to answer a question with a definite negative, since that leaves the possibility open for someone to come along later and say, "I know an example which disproves your position". But I think that naturally occurring human languages are all going to have euphemisms, since humans seem to like that. The only languages I know which do not have ...


8

The grammatical sense of the word "transitive" comes from the Latin transitivus, which as you imply the idea of going (itus) across (trans). This is calqued from Hellenistic Greek μεταβατικός. The most well known early use comes from the late Roman grammarian Priscian, who wrote the "Institutes of Grammar" (Institutiones Grammaticae) in the 6th century CE. ...


8

Although anecdotally the answer to the question is a confident "yes", there is a big complication: the many concepts of economic value that are bundled into the Western European concept of "money". This of course is a question for historical economics and anthropology, more than linguistics. A related question would be the question of the origins of the ...


7

This phenomenon is a specific case of how each language uniquely divides up the semantic space. The real world of referents is not divided up neatly into semantic categories that we can directly turn into lexical categories. A classic example is the color space. In the real world, there are an infinite number of colors in the spectrum, and the human visual ...


7

The number of the symbols a written language uses is inversely proportional to the length of the text in that language, the more symbols a language has, the shorter texts are. This is true for any notation system, not only human languages. For example, our decimal numeral system uses 10 different symbols (0 to 9), and the binary numeral system uses 5 times ...


7

I really depends on what you are after. Here is a list of my favorite text books, together with some short annotations. Heim & Kratzer 1998: one of the best intro to semantics if you are interested in the interface between syntax and semantics and working a generative grammar background for syntax. Intentionally a bit light on the logical background, ...


7

When the frequency is expressed in Hertz the number is actually lower for lower pitch sounds. Higher pitched tones have a higher number. For example middle C is 261Hz and bass C is 130Hz. Bass C is lower than middle C because the number of oscillations per second (Hertz) is lower than middle C. This may not speak to the history of the use of "low" and "...


7

Grammatical facts aren't volitional and purposive, they are conventional: you say "He runs", "I run" because that's how your colleagues and your ancestors talk(ed). If you go far enough back in time you would also say "you runst" and "we runneth". You can be understood if you say "He run", and some people do that and we don't even notice. Eventually we might ...


7

First off, let's take a broader look at multiple negation. Van der Wouden (1994a) describes four different classes of how multiple negation can be interpreted: double negation (DN), e.g. Standard English constructions with negation on the verb alongside negation of the pronoun [He did not see no-one.]; weakening negation, e.g. Standard English constructions ...


7

Sign languages. In English for example, we have the words "wide" and "narrow". We can say "a narrow belt" or "a wide belt", but these are "discretizations", aren't they? In BSL, the distance between your index finger and your thumb show exactly how wide the belt is, as you trace them round your waist. This holds even if that belt varies in width somehow.


7

In Finnish, oikea means both correct and the right direction. Finnish is a Finno-Ugric language, part of the Uralic languages and thus not Indo-European.


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