23 votes

Pronunciation of P in Latin, versus Ph in Greek

I'm going to take a slightly different approach than Jk's answer, which does a good job coming at this from a Greco-Roman perspective. Instead, I'm going to focus on the Punic situation because it's a ...
  • 5,653
18 votes
Accepted

How well do Semitic languages preserve consonants over time?

Semitic languages don't always preserve consonants perfectly. In fact, I don't think that there is any Semitic language without multiple classes of conjugation to account for irregularities. All ...
  • 2,715
15 votes

Linguistic relationship between Hebrew and Greek

You are using related in two different senses. When linguists refer to languages being related, they almost always mean "genetically related" - stemming ultimately from the same linguistic source. ...
  • 6,744
15 votes

Pronunciation of P in Latin, versus Ph in Greek

At some time in the history of the Greek languages, the letters Phi, Theta, and Chi represented aspirated consonants /ph/, /th/ and /kh/. The Romans felt that they were different enough from their ...
12 votes
Accepted

Have linguistics found any evidence that Semitic languages influenced Germanic languages or vice versa (in ancient times)?

There are some very controversial theories by the German linguist Theo Vennemann postulating a contact between Phoenician and proto-Germanic in the 6th to 3rd century BCE. The evidence for such ...
12 votes

Is a final -u in Semitic languages known outside of Akkadian?

That Akkadian word-final -u is the Nominative case ending, the other case endings being -a for Accusative and -i for Genitive. Thus, the case forms of the noun bētu 'house' are: Nom.: bētu Acc.: ...
  • 16.7k
11 votes

Why does Hebrew transcribe Akkadian š inconsistently?

Yes, some people think Akkadian š was pronounced [s]. For the sibilants, traditionally /š/ has been held to be postalveolar [ʃ], and /s/, /z/, /ṣ/ analyzed as fricatives; but attested ...
  • 17.1k
11 votes

What is the concept of verb agreement with passive-active level in Hebrew?

Although I haven't heard of the term "degrees of passive/active" before, they are almost certainly talking about the verbal stems. This is a concept indeed alien to Western European (or broader) but ...
  • 3,268
11 votes
Accepted

Is there some equivalent of a "Grimm's law" that applies to the Semitic language family?

Quite a lot of them, in fact! Grimm's Law is probably the most famous description of a regular sound change. But there are an enormous number of these in historical linguistics, some named, some not. ...
  • 57.5k
9 votes

Why is it that Babylonian king names do not match their Akkadian equivalent?

This comes down to the ambiguities in the Cuneiform script. Cuneiform doesn't have a one-to-one correspondence between signs and sounds. The sign DIŊIR is a good example. The sign started out in ...
  • 57.5k
9 votes
Accepted

What is Proto-Semitic *x̣?

One page further (p. 587), Huehnergard gives as one of the changes from Proto-Semitic to Old Babylonian: Common Semitic *ḫ and *x̣ merged to ḫ (Huehnergard 2003):      *ḫamisum > ḫamšum ‘five’; *...
  • 3,268
9 votes
Accepted

Similarities between Sumerian and Semitic languages

First off, it's worth noting that the main contact between Semitic and Sumerian involved Akkadian, not Hebrew, and the Akkadian words are a bit different—"mother" is ummu, and "father" is abu. And ...
  • 57.5k
9 votes
Accepted

Validity of aging estimation for Proto-Afro-Asiatic

The basic reasoning is set forth in Ehret 2002, The civilizations of Africa : a history to 1800 in ch. 2. It is based on the claim that there was a civilization living in NE Africa, that they were the ...
  • 73.1k
8 votes

is english excellent and arabic galaal related?

Arabic جلال (jalāl) is a well-established part of the triconsonantal root system, built from the root JLL "greatness, magnitude, height". "Excellent" meanwhile has cognates all across the Indo-...
  • 57.5k
8 votes
Accepted

do classical Arabic verb forms have a passive-active relationship like some Hebrew "buildings" do?

Typically Semitic languages form true passive verbs as "internal" passives formed by a change in the vowels of the stem, with "external" passives formed with affixes (possibly in ...
  • 5,653
7 votes
Accepted

At what point did the feminine ending fall silent in Semitic languages?

The feminine ending /t/ is retained in all forms in Akkadian, Ugaratic, South Arabian and Ethiopic. In Canaanaic (Hebrew) and Aramaic it is retained in the construct state but lost in the absolute ...
  • 23.1k
7 votes
Accepted

Why does Hebrew transcribe Akkadian š inconsistently?

While Akkadian š is generally cognate with Hebrew š or ś, there's good reason to believe its pronunciation was quite different! The reason it's transcribed as š is mostly historical—Akkadian was first ...
  • 57.5k
7 votes
Accepted

What does Eastern Aramaic have to say about "(definite) articles are acquired, not lost"?

Yes, Aramaic through the ages has had a more-or-less complete cycle attested, thanks to its long documented history. Yaudic Aramaic as attested on the inscriptions at Zencirli appears not to have any ...
  • 6,083
7 votes
Accepted

Can Semitic (Hebrew & Arabic) roots have vowels?

This is one of the topics addressed by Mike Brame in his MIT dissertation Ch. 5, for Classical Arabic, however I have to say that I find his discussion inconclusive. The prosodic pattern of verbs and ...
  • 73.1k
7 votes

Is the word for "brother-in-law" in Germanic languages related to the Aramaic/Syriac גיס?

Aramaic gīsā is a shorter form for aḡīsā “wife’s sister’s husband”. I do not have an etymology for this, but it really does not look anything like Indo-European *sueḱuro- or any of its descendants.
  • 23.1k
7 votes

Is there a common ancestor between the Hebrew לבן ("lavan", white) and the English "albino"?

Draconis is correct, but I want to add an additional note. Latin did not "chop off" the final consonant. What really happened is that we start with the word albus, which is an adjective ...
  • 812
7 votes

Is there a common ancestor between the Hebrew לבן ("lavan", white) and the English "albino"?

If we are looking for a Semitic parallel to IE *h₂elbh-o- > Lat. albus a better candidate might be the Semitic word for “milk”, Arabic ḥalab, Hebrew ḥālāḇ, Aramaic ḥalḇā, conceivably a Wanderwort ...
  • 23.1k
6 votes

Which modern day dialect of Aramaic is the closest one to the dialect that Jesus of Nazareth spoke in Palestine some 2000 years ago?

The concept of “closeness” is actually rather problematic in linguistics. English and French are “close” in the sense that they share a large amount of common vocabulary, but in the sense of genetic ...
  • 23.1k
6 votes
Accepted

Which modern day dialect of Aramaic is the closest one to the dialect that Jesus of Nazareth spoke in Palestine some 2000 years ago?

Galilean Aramaic is a Western Aramaic language. The only surviving Western Aramaic language is Western Neo-Aramaic, spoken in the villages of Ma'loula, Jubb'adin and Bakh'a n Syria.
  • 73.1k
6 votes

Parallels between h₂ and t in PIE and Nostratic, what is the explanation?

Let’s just take the beginning: In Afro-Asiatic we have the feminine ending -a which has the following evolution history: -a < -aha < -at < et What does -aha mean in an AA context? ...
  • 23.1k
6 votes
Accepted

Phonemic similarities between "mother" and "father" in different language families

The basic explanation is based on a combination of infant anatomical development and parental expectation. Infants don't initially know how to control their velum, so everything is nasalized. Also, ...
  • 73.1k
6 votes
Accepted

Is it possible for two Semitic (e.g. Arabic, Hebrew) words with the same triliteral root to have different origins?

Your cited examples do not involve the same roots in Hebrew and Arabic, they involve similar roots: [t] is not the same as [ṭ] and [f] is not the same as [p]. Semitic šim- "name" appears in Arabic as ...
  • 73.1k
6 votes

How well do Semitic languages preserve consonants over time?

As for the titular question, there's no standard measure of "degree of preservedness", but consonants are historically preserved in Semitic about as well as consonants are preserved in Indo-European – ...
  • 73.1k
6 votes

Is there a common ancestor between the Hebrew לבן ("lavan", white) and the English "albino"?

It seems to be a coincidence. Latin albus comes from PIE *h₂elbhos, which has a lot of descendants: Hittite alpas, Sanskrit ṛbhú, etc. So if there was a borrowing, it would have been back in the PIE ...
  • 57.5k
5 votes

Arabic word for door from root d-l-t or d-l-th

Short answer: I don't know of any, and haven't been able to find any. Longer answer: the Hebrew word is דלת (d-l-th), pronounced délet in Modern Hebrew. Strong derives it from a root דלה (d-l-h) ...
  • 57.5k

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