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10

From Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar (p. 20): "...as the original w has in most European languages been changed to v, so also in India, and that from a very early time: the Paninean scheme and two of the Prātiçākhyas (VPr. and TPr.) distinctly define the sound as made between the upper teeth and the lower lip -- which, of course, identifies it with the modern v-...


9

Don't take spelling too seriously, it's often conventional and arbitrary. Language is primarily a spoken thing rather than a string of written letters. Don't confuse sounds (phonemes) with their written symbols. Letters and phonemes have their own separate lives. With this proviso, I can try to answer some of your questions. how can W be a consonant? Its ...


9

"W" developed as a standard, distinct letter by about the 17th century, taking its sweet time getting there. It is the result of standardizing a ligature of "vv", ramming the letters together. Bear in mind that the Latin alphabet did not distinguish "u" and "v" as one can see from inspecting Latin inscriptions (modern publications do, however, generously ...


9

The Wiki page on Venetian proposes that it may be phonetically [ɰ], also Ø, but that does not match the Forvo sample which is closer to [j]. In lieu of a solid phonetic study, it's not really possible to assert what this sound "is", so comparing the properties of that sound to ones in other languages is not really possible. You can compare two pronunciations ...


8

No. In the vast majority of contexts, glide and semivowel are synonymous. See e.g. Ladefoged & Johnson (2015: 191), Rogers (2000: 184), Ball & Rahilly (1999: 51). Definitions of glide that somewhat differ from that of semivowel are sometimes encountered (e.g. Catford 2001: 68, Crystal 2008: 211), but even they don't match the definition in your ...


8

In theory, yes. Tashlhiyt Berber is said to have a contrast, but that does not mean that there are any minimal pairs. That article points to literature, saying that it is generally agreed that they are different. However, the article slightly undermines the claim by noting that [kw] and [kʷ] differ in terms of syllabification: which (potentially) means that ...


7

There are a few different and mutually incompatible definitions of "consonant" and "vowel". One is, like you said, that vowels have no friction. But what about approximants like [l] or [ɹ]—or, for that matter, [j] or [w]? Those sounds have no friction and no complete closure, so wouldn't they be vowels? Another definition is that vowels form syllable nuclei,...


5

First off, a quick note about the use of / / vs. the use of [ ]. Usually the former is used for phonemes and the latter for phones. Since you are really talking about phones here, I'm going to shift to using [ ]. This is sort of a tricky question. In the examples you give, the state of both the tongue and the lips is expressed by the IPA symbol: [i]/[j] - ...


4

Just because a language contrasts two sounds, doesn't mean there should be minimal pairs (cf. English /h/ and /ŋ/). The IPA uses a plain w to symbolise the [w] sound (war) and a superscript ʷ for labialisation (i.e. secondary articulation). There's a constriction at the velum for w, but ʷ doesn't have any constriction at the velum, it's simply the ...


4

Thai can be what you are looking for. It has onset clusters /kw/, /kʰw/. Quite often, they are realized as labialized velar consonants /kʷ/, /kʰʷ/. However¹, final stops like /-k/ are accompanied by a simultaneous glottal stop, thus making syllable boundaries well defined by intersyllabic juncture. This prevents any C-to-C coarticulation and ...


4

The term "glide" is used to include [h,ʔ], but the laryngeal glides would not be called semivowels. If you consult the IPA chart, you will see that neither "glide" nor "semivowel" enter into that terminological standard. Using "semivowel" at all is mildly non-standard. The problem with asking about standards is that ...


4

A vowel has two closely related but inequivalent definitions. One of them looks what's happening in the mouth etc. Vowel is a sound in which the tongue doesn't touch anything and there's no build of pressure anywhere. That's why the sound may last uniformly and that's why it has the potential to be the peak of a syllable. The sound that allows a syllable to ...


3

If you do strictly go by the first paragraph's understanding of [w], [wu] should be a somewhat longer version of [u], having whatever its reduced duration is plur that of [u]. It is not false to say that [w] is a rather short [u], but that is insufficient. Apart from duration, there is a small but visible difference in stricture of the vocoid, where the ...


3

An article that claims that /j/ and /i/ are phonemically the same and distinguished from each other by being syllabic or not is either very confused about the concept of "phoneme", or doesn't know the difference between "phonemically" and "segmentally". The standard late-SPE analysis of the distinction is that [j,w] are [-syllabic] and [i,u] are [+syllabic]:...


2

There is no simple IPA letter for [o̯] (or /o̯/). You can see the complete chart of IPA symbols on the following website: http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipa-charts/ipa-symbols-chart-complete/ The IPA obviously only has a limited number of letters that don't cover all possible human speech sounds. In phonetic transcriptions people just write [...


2

From an orthographic POV, stress is on the second to last vowel of the word ([púa] "nose", and if there is only a single orthographic vowel but there is an NC sequence before the vowel, the stress is on the nasal (which is syllabic" [ḿbwa] "dog", [ḿtu] "person"). So if I parsed your examples, pattern 1 is right, and you never get pattern 2. Glides would ...


2

There is interesting research that the switch from hunter-gatherer to agriculture changed the jaw alignment creating an overbite that made the labio-dental consonants "f" and "v" a common letter in farming cultures. [see Blasi, D. E., Moran, S., Moisik, S. R., Widmer, P., Dediu, D., & Bickel, B. (2019).] Balthasar Bickel associates ...


2

I think Catford has in mind the phonetician's distinction between a sound with a steady state and a sound without a steady state, the latter being a glide. Looking at the sound spectrograms displaying formant transitions, one can distinguish between sounds where the formants are level for an appreciable time, which is a steady state, and others where steady ...


2

It really depends on what kind of theory (of what?) you are using. In phonology, feature theory (generic theory, there are many specific theories) provides one kind of answer and makes it somewhat meaningful to talk about "corresponding". In phonetics, the IPA sort of constitutes a theory, but it doesn't even have "semivowels" and I don't ...


1

As a phonetic term, approximants refer to a class of consonants which covers liquids and glides (which includes laryngeal glides), so a vowel is not an approximant. In the SPE feature tradition, vowels and glides have in common the property of being [–consonantal]. The most likely reason why it sounds to you like a schwa is that many consonants cannot be "...


1

A small cap H has been used by some structuralist phonemicists to stand for the centralizing glide which is very prominent in some American dialects. Perhaps someone who knows that literature better than I can tell us just where this got started, though I cannot, but my guess is that the basis for it is not any phonetic similarity between offset [H] and ...


1

[h], customarily referred to as a voiceless glottal fricative, in reality denotes any voiceless articulation with no interruption of the airflow in the oral cavity, with no defined configuration of the tongue or the lips. [ɦ] is the same except the vocal folds oscillate to some extent. So some argue they are best regarded as placeless consonants. So if you ...


1

There may be a difference between what an author writes as "ai" versus "aj", but this is usually a substitute for the difference between a sequence of vowels in different syllables versus a vowel plus high front vocoid in the same syllable. The difference could be written as [ai] versus [a.i], but writing syllable boundaries is not a popular option ...


1

Saussure proposed a phonetic theory of syllables according to which syllable onset sounds have increasing oral aperture for their duration (called explosive), syllable offset sounds have decreasing oral aperture for their duration (called implosive), and (Saussure doesn't say this, but it seems implied) syllabic nuclei, which have constant oral aperture. ...


1

Vowels can't be consonants. Consonants can't be vowels. However, consonants can do things that are more commonly observed with vowels, and vice versa. "Vowel" is specifically a description of the vocal tract constriction of the segment combined with the prosodic property of being a syllable peak ("syllabic"). When a vocalic (vowel-like) segment is not ...


1

The spelling issues in this case are identical in Thai and Lao. กว่า /kwaa/ (low tone) ‘more than’ กว้าง /kwaang/ (falling tone) ‘broad’ ด้วย /duay/ (falling tone) ‘also’ ด่วน /duan/ (low tone) ‘urgent’ Here are some examples from Thai. In the first two, the [w] letter is a glide, so the tone mark goes above or slightly after it. It is part of the ...


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