36

Despite its name, the ISO Basic Latin Alphabet isn't particularly concerned with representing Latin. It was developed in the modern day, so the fact that I~J and U~V weren't consistently distinguished until the 18th century isn't relevant—they're consistently distinguished now. But the observation that the ISO Basic Latin Alphabet aligns exactly with what's ...


11

Is it just a coincidence that English is the only major language that used all these letters and no more in its orthography? Is it a coincidence? No. But that's not the right test, because there are other letters that are not core to the orthographies of all major languages. (k, y, x and q, for example). A more consistent test then would be if the letter ...


11

Vlaams is Flemish. Vlaams is the Flemish word for "Flemish". Whether to regard this as a separate language (that's vls) or as a variant/dialect/whatever of Dutch (nl-BE), seems to be a matter of opinion or political stance.


9

Are the languages spoken in various Arabian countries actually mutually intelligible? If no then it makes more sense to regard them as separate languages. In China the government likes to officially categorize various Chinese languages as "dialects", but the reality is that the difference is really huge between some of them, e.g. comparing Mandarin and ...


8

Two-letter codes are defined in ISO 639-1 and the current list does not contain a code for "other". (As Wikipedia's list of ISO 639-1 codes shows, not all possible two-letter codes have been used so far, i.e. only 184 out 676 possible codes, so it is theoretically possible that such a code gets added later.) Since the possible number of codes ...


8

Unifying and subdividing speech forms under an ISO code is not a rigorous ontological claim: it is the standardization statement "this linguistic thing is to be abbreviated that way". "Quechua", "Luyia", and "Arabic" (also "Latvian") are examples of macrolanguages, under ISO 639-3. The individual languages are different enough that they are not all mutually ...


6

If you can afford the extra work, use as many of the lists as possible, of course using explicit tags declaring from which set the code is taken, e.g., <languagecode type="iso639-3">eng</languagecode> If you want to use only one of them, use ISO 639-3 if possible. It is an International Standard, well-maintained, frequently used and easily ...


6

"Flemish" technically has a different meaning from "Belgian Standard Dutch" — the latter being the standard form of the Dutch language as spoken in Belgium, much like how "Holland" is often used as a synonym for "The Netherlands", but technically only comprises a region thereof. One may view the dialect map of languages spoken around the Netherlands here. ...


6

This appears to be a bug in Apple's system font San Francisco. The International Phonetic Association designates the symbol for a voiced uvular fricative to be "Inverted small capital R", ʁ, which is defined in Unicode as LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL INVERTED R at U+0281, and since "inverted" means "flipped along the horizontal axis&...


5

I assume your concern is with regard to Norwegians and not compliance with some statutory requirement (if there is any such requirement, which I doubt, I am certain that it wasn't arrived at by opinion polls in Norway). The code "no" refers to any form of Norwegian, and "nb" refers to Bokmål, "nn" referring to Nynorsk which ...


4

The official chart published by the International Phonetic Association is the official standard and thus should be used as the primary reference. The primary difference between the official chart and the Wikipedia one is that the former is created to illustrate the set of symbols, while the latter simply lists the sounds found in the world's languages (...


4

"Also except for some variations in North Africa Arabs" - this isn't just "some variations" - Moroccan Arabic and Tunisian Arabic are significantly different from Lebanese or Saudi (and from each other as well - with Algerian being a sort of middle between the two), far more so than British and American, more like the difference between Portuguese and ...


4

ISO has codes for languages (ISO 639), and for scripts (ISO 15924); but it has no codes for transliterations, as you can see by perusing ISO's standards on Writing and Transliteration. ISO adopts and standardises transliterations; but unlike languages and scripts, it has not catalogued them. Using existing ISO codes, zh-Latn means "Chinese in Latin ...


4

The rhythmic grouping of numbers is usually called "phrasing", e.g. "4-3 2-1-7 9-1-5-6". Within a "phrase", at least in English, there are still options regarding reading the numbers as individual digits vs. number-expressions (one-nine-eight versus one-ninety eight). I've never heard that sub-pattern be given a separate name.


3

I am not aware of any linguistic terminology for this particular kind of conventions. However, there is some applicable terminology from software engineering, particularly from the field of localisation: It some kind of locale. While locales typically apply to the visual formatting of dates, numbers etc. in terminal output, stretching it to spoken formatting ...


3

You can look these up at IANA's own site: https://www.iana.org/assignments/language-tags/language-tags.xhtml#language-tags-1 In "Tags for the Identification of Languages" [BCP47] [RFC3066] there is a provision for listing unique "tags" or names for languages and variants of languages. This document summaries the list of assigned language tags.


3

The Wikipedia page is just out of date. If you check the edit history you'll see the latest edit is from 2013, but the ovd code was only created in 2015. SIL have an index which looks like it could be up to date. It has ovd, but not olv. But Google has no results for "olv Uvåsiljan" or "olv Ulum Dalska" so my guess is that it's either a typo or someone made ...


3

I'm not able to give you an authoritative answer, but here is my attempt at one. See "Macrolanguage" in Wikipedia and in SIL for more information. The distinction between a language and a dialect is mostly a political or social question, not a linguistic one. Thus Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian were universally regarded as one language (Serbo-Croat) until ...


3

The names for the metadata fields that you drop sound like Dublin Core and the linked Wikipedia article has some explanation and further links. Note that Dublin Core metatada fields can occur in any multiplicity in your description, including 0—every metadata field is optional. Fill as many metadata fields as you can, and don't hesitate to use some of them (...


3

In Addition to @Tsundoku's answer, there is a kind of private use area in ISO 639-3: In addition, 520 codes in the range qaa–qtz are 'reserved for local use'. So you can assign in your application the code qot for "other" when you want to do this. Note that the same code can have completely different assignments on other places. Addition in reply ...


3

I think this means that some of their data comes from a bilingual Chinese / English source. zh means Chinese and en means English, so it's reasonable that they invented ze to mean a bilingual data source including Chinese and English. Correct me if I'm wrong, but it looks like you got this table from the Open Subtitles Corpus? http://opus.nlpl.eu/...


2

If your goal is to learn the IPA, you should use the official IPA chart (most current version, from the web page of the president of the IPA). Wikipedia's chart includes diacritics beyond the standard illustrative box of the IPA, which is not sufficiently inclusive and is thus confusing. For example, it omits [b̥ d̥] etc. but does include [ʋ̥ ɽ̊]... which ...


2

As recommended by W3C, you should be using nb as it is more specific than the macrolanguage no. Use macrolanguages with care. Some language subtags have a Scope field set to macrolanguage, ie. this primary language subtag encompasses a number of more specific primary language subtags in the registry. […] You can find the more specific (ie. the encompassed) ...


2

https://github.com/unicode-org/cldr/blob/main/common/supplemental/supplementalData.xml includes a map from three-letter language to four-letter script, under element languageData. See documentation https://www.unicode.org/reports/tr35/tr35-info.html#Supplemental_Language_Data


2

ISO themselves do not define such a mapping, but there is now a mapping list by Jörg Tiedemann available that defines mapping between ISO 639-5 and ISO 639-3 and it also includes Glottolog codes. The list is available here https://github.com/Helsinki-NLP/LanguageCodes/blob/master/data/iso639-5_to_iso639-3.tsv


2

Most likely, there never was a complete list. In October 2014 Peter Constable wrote the following in an e-mail to the IETF-languages mailing list (emphasis mine): While ISO 639-6 did get approved and published, the code table for 639-6 has never been made fully available in a usable manner. What data has been available has been looked at by lots of people ...


1

It is a misconception that an unassigned code in a standard can be just used for anything you want. It may be officially assigned tomorrow! This is unlikely in the case of ISO 639-1, but this is the way standards work. An unassigned code MUST not be used, and you are out of the standard immediately when you do so. An application reading the unassigned code ...


1

The syllables of an utterance are normally split into intonational phrases, or IPs, for short. You can think of each IP as consisting of a miniature tune, or musical phrase. In a situation where the numbers are read as a series of individual digits, each with its own tonic syllable and musical contour, each digit has its own intonational phrase. In cases ...


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