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17

This a metaphor. Both terms refer to plants, but words are not plants. Metaphors are rarely exact, so there's no reason to expect the difference between root and stem to be consistent for all languages. The distinction is only useful in a highly inflected language like Latin; in English both words are used in the same way -- to indicate what one adds an ...


10

A "lexeme" is a theoretical thing, a unit in the mental lexicon. You can think of it as being an entire dictionary entry, but in our mental knowledge bank of what words mean rather than a physical book. A "stem" is a practical thing: it's the part of a word that you stick affixes onto. The stem of play, playing, plays, played, etc is play-...


5

The classic original study is Joseph Greenberg 1950 "The Patterning of Root Morphemes in Semitic" (Word 5, 162–181). A later study with a larger lexicon was conducted by M. Mrayati 1987 "Statistical studies of Arabic language roots". The OCP controversy features this pattern prominently. There are different degrees of strength to the particular effects, for ...


3

One option may be using a more aggressive stemmer. E.g., Lancaster stemmer with NLTK in Python: In [7]: stemmer = nltk.stem.LancasterStemmer() In [8]: stemmer.stem('egyptian') Out[8]: 'egypt'


3

From the computational linguistics point of view, and especially targeting moderately inflected languages, a lexeme can be thought as a set of all inflected forms of a word. Such a set - a lexeme - can be represented by something uniquely describing it, which is usually a lemma, a basic form of the word (this is quite language dependent). The stem can be ...


2

The number is preserved in the word attribute, so it's easy enough to swap it back in. But as mentioned in the comments, Tag is an immutable type. So I propose a fairly straightforward list comprehension/filter: def fix_numbers(tag): if tag.lemma == '@card@': return Tag(tag.word, tag.pos, tag.word) return tag fixed_list = [fix_numbers(tag) for tag ...


2

There are two relevant terms for word subparts, "stem" and "root". A root is the smallest meaning-bearing part of a word which carries the lexical meaning. A stem contains one or more roots, but typically excludes inflectional affixes. The problem is that there isn't a well-defined definition or theory of "stem' which allows you to say whether 'cow' is just ...


1

I suppose it depends on the task. If you don't often expect to see out-of-vocabulary words (i.e., words for which you don't have lemmata), there is no point in stemming—in fact, it might be harmful in that it might normalize two words of different meaning to the same stemmed string. Yes, stemming can be harmful. It'd be best to try lemmatization vs. ...


1

Root, stem, base are used in various linguistic sectors with slightly different meanings, so in each case you have to get information how a special linguistic field or a special author uses these terms. In Latin grammar root and stem have one meaning, in the IE field another, so a general definition of those three terms brings nothing.


1

A root is the form to which derivational affixes are added to form a stem. (Sometimes stems are formed by derivational processes other than affixation.) A stem is the form to which inflectional affixes are added to form a word. In English, many words have no affixes, in which case there is no point in distinguishing word from stem or stem from root. ...


1

Suffixoids and prefixoids are words typically referring to some middle stage of grammaticalisation, i.e. when we do not consider the element a stand-alone word but it is not comparable yet to regular derivational morphemes. This seems like a pretty apt analysis of both -like and -man in the examples above. For -like, this is something that has actually ...


1

Note that there is always a grey zone between suffixes and compound words. Arguably, all suffixes were independent words historically, but lost their independent meaning (in German verblassen "to bleach out"). So we have at any time some things that are still recognisable as words, but half-way on becoming a true suffix. This things are called suffixoids.


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