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22

I'm going to take a slightly different approach than Jk's answer, which does a good job coming at this from a Greco-Roman perspective. Instead, I'm going to focus on the Punic situation because it's a bit of an interest of mine In this early stage of Greek (Classical Attic), we had three alveolar stops (I will come back to the bilabials in a bit, don't worry)...


15

At some time in the history of the Greek languages, the letters Phi, Theta, and Chi represented aspirated consonants /ph/, /th/ and /kh/. The Romans felt that they were different enough from their native sounds /p/, /t/, /k/ (spelled ⟨c⟩) to deserve a special spelling ⟨ph⟩, ⟨th⟩, and ⟨ch⟩. This was the state of sounds at Cicero's time. Later, the Greek ...


15

Sanskrit, the Middle Indian languages, and most modern Indo-Aryan languages have a four-way distinction p~ph~b~bh. Punjabi has lost the bh-series (‘voiced aspirates’) and replaced it by a difference in tone, so it can be argued that Punjabi has only a three-way distinction p~ph~b (though it could also be argued that it has a four-way distinction at a ...


7

Danish has no voiced plosives but two series of voiceless plosives, aspirated and unaspirated. These are typically transcribed with <p, t, k; b, d, ɡ> rather than the more phonetically representative <pʰ, tʰ, kʰ; p, t, k>, and even when phonetic precision is called for, with <pʰ, tˢ, kʰ; b̥, d̥, ɡ̊> or <b̥ʰ, d̥ˢ, ɡ̊ʰ; b̥, d̥, ɡ̊>. ...


7

Having acoustically inspected these tokens as well as online tokens from Esling and Ladefoged, I notice that all performers have a longer voice onset time (around 20 msc, varying according to performer and context, greater in the [aCa] context) in production of [c], and it is filled with identifiable fricative-like noise. The best source is the Esling chart (...


5

It's all about the manner of articulation. A stop consonant is by definition a sound produced by the complete obstruction of airflow though the mouth, at least for a short time. There are two kinds, oral stops (what you call "stops"), which keep the velum raised, preventing airflow from escaping though the nose, and nasal stops (what you call "nasals"), ...


4

I have not seen all papers in phonology, but I don't think that a bidental plosive or a bidental stop (that would be technical terms for that sound) was ever described in literature. A bidental fricative /h̪͆/ is described as a marginal phoneme occurring as an allophone of another voiceless fricative in Northeast Caucasian languages, see Are there conlangs ...


4

The answer can be either yes or no—it comes down to your definition. Some people define "stop consonants" to be consonants where the airflow is completely stopped (as in, the opposite of continuant consonants). In this case, nasals are not stops: the airflow continues through the nose, which is why you can extend them and keep the sound going. Other people ...


4

Just to give you some more data, by analyzing the UPSID, I have come up with the following list of languages that specifically have this three way contrast in stops, and no other phonation distinctions in stops (according to the UPSID data): BRUU BURMESE BURUSHASKI COFAN EPENA PEDEE ? GUAHIBO (has [p, b, t̪ʰ, t, d, k; also t͡s]; Note that [t̪ʰ] is ...


4

It is possible that you do lower the velum when you do this, and velum lowering is one of the methods that is used to alleviate the pressure buildup of voiced stops, but it is also possible that your feelings about what you are doing is wrong. You could be reacting to pressure against your velum and/or the acoustic consequences of acoustic transduction of ...


3

As a rule, the voiceless aspirates are a dialectal feature. In most languages, they cannot be distinguished from plain voiceless. As regards *kh, the typical pattern is Old Indian kh, Armenian x, Greek k(h). For example, in a potentially onomatopeic verb: *kakh- "to laugh", where probably no laryngeal is involved. As regards *th, typically Old Indian th, ...


3

If you're producing nasals then you must be allowing your velum to drop. No fair. You have to find some way to enlarge the closed air cavity above your larynx. There are several ways to do this. One is to lower your larynx, as Catford suggests. Watch your throat in a mirror and you may be able to see your larynx bobbing downward, if you're doing this ...


3

I would add that, phonetically, voice is a matter of timing, more precisely of the VOT or Voice-Onset Time, which refers to the time when your vocal folds begin to vibrate with respect to the moment of release of the consonantal "blockage". Generally, there is a continuum of values, spanning from voiced consonants, having a negative VOT, to voiceless ...


3

This is quite common. I would argue that that Georgian pattern is almost the same thing as the aspirated-unvoiced-ejective pattern. This variant where the plain stop is voiced occurs frequently in other Caucasian languages as well as Georgian, and also shows up pretty frequently in North America. To start looking for answers to questions like this, I would ...


2

There is no phonetic difference, but there is also no phonetic unity supposed ᵐb / mb are pronounced in many different ways across languages. On occasion, there is an audible contrast between two such things, which is usually based on some durational facts, with the nasal being of different durations. Swahili and Sinhalese are examples of languages with two ...


2

This being an obligatory answer to a question, we would have to know your instructor's ideology and instructional point – i.e. in the present instance, we can only offer reasonable interpretations of what he/she might have had in mind, based on what is actually said and done in linguistics. The phonetic term "plosive" unambiguously refers to [p,t,k] and not ...


1

"Aspiration" is used in multiple ways, phonetically and phonologically, which can lead to some confusion, and Wiki reflects that confusion. Given that you're appealing to physical production and not phonology, I assume you don't care about aspiration as a phonological property, you just are about production (Wiki articles have many authors so there is no ...


1

You could use Acoustical characteristics of selected English consonants, by Ilse Lehiste, to determine what the formant transition patterns are, or the voicing patterns, that would be of interest to you. However, a simpler way to decide is to just listen. If for example a listener isn't fluent in English and has problems in certain contexts, distinguishing "...


1

It's a glottalized p, usually written [p']. But sometimes this term refers to ejective glottalization, with both closure and raising of the glottis, and of course in English we don't get raising of the glottis. So it's not an ejective. As noted in some other answers, [sʌ̃ʔm̩] is a possible pronunciation of "something" for many of us. That's what you get ...


1

You are presumably hearing it right. "Something" is different from "rotten" in more than place of articulation: "rotten" = [rɑʔn̩]. "Something", in that pronunciation, is [sʌmʔm̩] (traditionally that vowel is transcribed with wedge unless it's in an unstressed syllable). Syllabicity is not a phonetic "fact" that can be decided by listening, so I included the ...


1

After thinking about what you described, I was thinking and I think I realised you were probably referring to the colloquial shortening of the word that is indeed glottalised. I believe this sequence of sounds is best transcribed as some variant of [səʔm] with a pre-glottalised nasal.


1

The aspirate [kʰ] is a pulmonic consonant and the ejective [k'] is a, well, ejective consonant. You might want to check another question here related to ejective consonants and their pronunciation. If you speak English reasonably well (i.e. as either a L1 speaker or a moderately long-time learner) you'll find that the words <skid> and <kid> are, ...


1

There are different kinds of stop consonant /b/. Prevoiced /b/: this occurs in Spanish, French, Russian, etc; has a negative VOT. In other words, voicing starts before the closure. You can call it 'voice lagging time'. Partially voiced /b/: this occurs in aspirating languages, and intially. has non-negative VOT (sure, you find some speakers with negative ...


1

Normally, English "k", "t" and "p" are always aspirated, so they have a very slight "h" sound right after them. But, here's the catch: not always! When they're preceded by an "s" they're pronounced pure. Native speakers almost never notice the difference, but it's crucial if you want to pronounce correctly some languages. Practice reading slowly "It's Pete'...


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