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7

The background assumption is that there are rules of diphthongization where tense vowels /ō ē ī ū ǣ / become [uw, iy, ay, aw, ey], the latter being written various ways in contemporary transcriptional practice, esp. using "j" for "y" in the IPA. When a vowel is laxed, you get [ɔ ɛ ɪ ʊ æ] though for lax /u/ the derivation and outcome ...


6

Of course there is the term homograph for words sharing the same spelling, but I am not aware for a special term of homographs that are essentially distinguished by their stress patterns.


6

This has not been elevated to the status of a special term. There is some generality to the pattern and is discussed in the phonological literature. In English, verbs versus nouns have different stress patterns, having to do with whether final consonant clusters force final stress (in verbs) or not (in nouns). In addition, one can use nouns as verbs and vice ...


3

These are examples of suprafix in English, where the stress pattern on a word changes to give it a distinct meaning. More specifically, your examples are all initial-stress-derived nouns. Such words (and words which are generally spelled the same but pronounced differently) are known as heteronyms (or heterophones).


3

I've never seen this kind of vowel alternation analyzed as a "simulfix" like that. I would say that it would be preferable to use either of the following analyses: the different phonological forms of the words are simply stored separately in their whole forms: (/əˈɹɪθmətɪk/ and /æɹɪθˈmɛtɪk/). This is redundant (due to the common consonants between ...


1

Metrical stress refers to a specific family of generative theories of stress, originating from a proposal by Liberman and Prince 1977. It has various technical characteristics as to what it claims "stress" is. Lexical stress or word stress refers to the language fact, not the theoretical analysis, and specifically refers to the fact about single ...


1

You might try the Oxford Bibliographies entry on tone, by Remijsen, if you can get access. There is a section on tonogenesis, though that is the opposite of the historical trend that you are asking about. As far as diachronic change is concerned, there is not much written about tonoexodus, but this article by Ratliff could be helpful. Change from tone to non-...


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