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7

The background assumption is that there are rules of diphthongization where tense vowels /ō ē ī ū ǣ / become [uw, iy, ay, aw, ey], the latter being written various ways in contemporary transcriptional practice, esp. using "j" for "y" in the IPA. When a vowel is laxed, you get [ɔ ɛ ɪ ʊ æ] though for lax /u/ the derivation and outcome ...


6

Of course there is the term homograph for words sharing the same spelling, but I am not aware for a special term of homographs that are essentially distinguished by their stress patterns.


6

This has not been elevated to the status of a special term. There is some generality to the pattern and is discussed in the phonological literature. In English, verbs versus nouns have different stress patterns, having to do with whether final consonant clusters force final stress (in verbs) or not (in nouns). In addition, one can use nouns as verbs and vice ...


3

These are examples of suprafix in English, where the stress pattern on a word changes to give it a distinct meaning. More specifically, your examples are all initial-stress-derived nouns. Such words (and words which are generally spelled the same but pronounced differently) are known as heteronyms (or heterophones).


3

Native speakers quite often "dilute" phonological characteristics of language they speak, especially in a colloquial conversation. In Slavonic languages, this includes vowel length, vowel quality, loudness, tonal contour, and practically everything else. Note that native speakers intuitively strip off only those characteristics that do not prevent ...


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