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10

Yes, and no. There are many different sign lanuages in the world, and they have a tree of descent just as spoken languages do. But there is very little connection between the sign language and the spoken languages of a particular area For example, ASL (American Sign Language) is said to be derived from French Sign Language: both are utterly different from ...


9

As jk mentioned, linguists tend to use abbreviations rather than graphics for this. One standardized list is found in the appendix of the Leipzig glossing rules, which gives SG, DU, PL, etc for numbers, PST, PRS, FUT, etc for tenses, and so on. These standards are often extended for individual languages, since it's extremely difficult to come up with a ...


8

I think the Original Poster might be of the widely held belief that sign language translates 'actual' spoken language into signs. For example, one could envisage a system where the sentence she is at home would have four signs, one meaning she one meaning is, one meaning at and one meaning home. This would be a system similar to signed English for example, ...


8

I'm sorry that I can't upvote your comment yet, but I did just join the site in order to reply. While you might not find it in any formal prescriptive English grammar book as yet, there's plenty of evidence that emoticons are functioning in exactly the same way that canonical, traditional punctuation does: namely, they're pragmatic or discourse marks. ...


7

It is the sacred syllable “om” in a rather stylised Devanagari script. In plain unicode text: आँ


7

One part of the reason is that Chinese characters are not as language-independent as you think and do, in fact, represent Chinese pronunciation. That is why you have a "horse" 马 mǎ component in the yes/no question marker 吗 ma (which in itself shows that Chinese characters are also tied to Chinese grammar). The reason that you get two-character responses is ...


6

No. In fact, there aren't any graphics used for that purpose. Among linguists, abbreviations are used all over the place, and under Universal Features you can find a representative set of abbreviations for common categories on different parts of speech.


4

This is the syllable "Om" (ॐ) written in Ranjana script from Nepal Images of different variations can be searched on Google


4

(This should be a comment, but it's too long.) For a very brief overview: The lowercase forms developed out of Mediaeval handwriting, becoming fixed in their modern shapes with the invention of the printing press. The uppercase forms go back to Roman inscriptions. The Romans borrowed the alphabet from the Etruscans, who borrowed it from Greek colonists, ...


3

I assume this is Optimality Theory, so that mark indicates when a constraint violation is the deciding 'fatal' violation for one of the possible forms. Specifically, asterisk (*) marks a violation of a constraint, and the addition of the exclamation mark (!) indicates that this violation was the deciding one. (See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...


3

Edit: add N’Ko I know of two modern living RTL mathematical tradition: Arabic and N’ko. I have no idea how other living RTL scripts (Hebrew, Dihevi, Syriac) deal with math. Arabic For Arabic (including other languages (Farsi, Urdu), written in the Arabic alphabet), there are three distinct traditions (Morocco, Maghreb, Mashrek), so I think the fraction order ...


3

Yes, there are - if I understood you correctly, but I've seen only one so far, for the Russian language. It's called Русский ассоциативный словарь (Russian Associative Dictionary), in two volumes. You can read more about how it was compiled in Ufimtseva 2014. As for English, I've only seen The Edinburgh Associative Thesaurus. http://vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/...


2

Is one willing to accept that there is a new kind of communication channel with its own elements? The question then is, what kind of a transference phenomenon do we see from CMD to other kinds of communication because unless that happens emoticons are just that: emoticons. The transference may even be to verbal communication, nonverbal gestures, in addition ...


1

First, regarding the question as you frame it in the title, not all symbols are morphemes. Some symbols (linguistic ones) are sounds (which can be "phones" or "phonemes", if you believe in the distinction). Others are structural categories, such as "S", "Determiner", "Stem", "Place". Second, a symbol is conventionally associated to its referent, not its ...


1

Some American textbooks for (modern) languages will use an underdot (U+0323) to represent stressed syllables that must be memorized. As long as you explain to your reader what you mean, that could be a good alternative: per Chaos học ịngēns uāstīque silentia rēgnī Doesn't look as good with SE's default font, but most serif fonts I've seen prints ...


1

I do not see any problem with the way you did it in your second grey box: you put a macron immediately above the long vowels, and indicated the scansion of the verse (heavy and light syllables) in a separate line above the text. That is standard procedure. But if you want to call attention to the unorthographic scansion of “hoc”, you could always write “hoc(...


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