16 votes
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What is the difference between complements and adjuncts?

The distinction is between arguments (sometimes also called complements) and adjuncts. In general, arguments are expressions that complete a predicate, and that are required by the predicate. Adjuncts,...
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  • 1,404
9 votes
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"STARBUCKESE" syntax problem

I would analyze this as the result of a fixed phrase (which contains a preposition) fossilizing and becoming used as an adjective. An (in house) lawyer An (over the counter) drug A (venti with room) ...
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8 votes
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A question about C-command

Traditionally, c-command does not reach out of a prepositional phrase. Here are two definitions of c-command taken from the literature: C-command: A node A c-commands a node B if, and only if A's ...
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  • 5,320
7 votes
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What software is used to make these X-bar trees?

This is almost certainly done with LaTeX, or one of its friends, and the tikz-qtree package. It is an improvement of the qtree package with nicer node placement. If you are not familiar with LaTeX, ...
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  • 3,085
6 votes
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Analyzing negation with a syntactic tree

Totally depends on your syntax theory. Some prefer to do it with a NegP, as suggested bei @eijen: Others assume the negation to be in I: And then again you could see negation as an adverb ...
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  • 6,120
6 votes
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Who is credited for the syntax tree in synthetic linguistics

"Tree" has been a thing in mathematics for some time. "Phrase structure" is a particular mathematical theory of syntax introduced by Chomsky. As far as I know the first phrase structure tree is on p. ...
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5 votes

Infinitive verbs in syntax tree

This answer is based on chapter 2 (section 8: "Infinitival to) of Minimalist Syntax: Exploring the structure of English by Andrew Radford (2004), and "Auxiliaries: To's company" (2012) by Robert ...
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5 votes

Earley Parser: Ambiguity

Earley parser is one example of chart parser, also called dynamic programming parser. There are many other kinds such as the CYK parser, the GLR and GLL parser, and more. The whole point of chart ...
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  • 1,497
5 votes

Why is dependency parsing so much faster than constituency parsing?

There are several factors at play: The implementation language: C/C++ is faster than Java is faster than Python The algorithm: Most of the constituent parsers, as well as MSTParser, use a dynamic ...
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5 votes

Syntax Trees examples

Although what is "correct" always depends on theory, there are various things that are definitely not quite right with your trees. Tree #1 the founder of the church of England The whole thing ...
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5 votes

How do contractions work in syntactic movement?

Summarizing the paper by Zwicky and Pullum commented by @sumelic above: They suggest that most contractions are clitics, but <-n't> is an inflection. Most English contractions, such as <-'s> &...
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  • 6,782
5 votes

How do contractions work in syntactic movement?

I'm not convinced the notion "clitic" is really needful to explain what is going on. Some syntactic rules depend on what the words are, and you can't always trust traditional English orthography to ...
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  • 12.3k
5 votes
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How do you draw a syntax tree for a sentence with a dummy subject?

Good question! It depends on the details of your sentence. For sentences like "it is raining" or "there is a rhinoceros", the dummy subjects "it" and "there" act for all (syntactic) intents and ...
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5 votes

Why two appearances of the past participle "ganado" in this derivation?

One of the main reasons for positing a v layer separate from V is the behavior of ditransitive verbs. In particular, all the objects of a ditransitive verb seem to form a constituent of their own, ...
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4 votes

Why are syntax trees binary trees?

There are several different views on the acceptability of trees where a mother has more than two daughters (i.e. non-binary branching). Much current work in the Minimalist Program (e.g. the Sportiche ...
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4 votes
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How to search Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns?

Your question is tagged for NLTK, but if you're free to switch, Stanford NLP has a product called Tregex which does exactly this kind of tree search. You might also be able to shell out to the Tregex ...
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4 votes

How order of the syntax tree is formally/strictly proven?

Good question. Constituency is the theory behind such a tree diagram. There are a bunch of different Constituency tests which you can do on paper: [ [John] [ [hit] [ [ [the] ] [ball] ] ] ] Wh-...
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4 votes
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How to treat adverbial phrases in X-bar theory

Short answer '[I]n the many places where I was guilty of the reprehensible and shockingly common confusion of the notions of "adverb" and "adverbial"; these defects, for which I ...
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3 votes

How to search Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns?

There are quite a few tools which can do this. For example: Tregex mentioned by Jon Gauthier. I know a few others: PML-TQ https://ufal.mff.cuni.cz/pmltq/ Tundra https://weblicht.sfs.uni-tuebingen....
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  • 131
3 votes
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Drawing tree diagrams of ambiguous sentences generated by a CFG

If you are looking for parse trees according to your grammar, the first tree seems correct, up to the missing N symbols, and a missing NOM above fleas. However your second diagram should look as ...
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  • 1,497
3 votes

dependency or constituency treebank?

Regarding your second question, Michael Collins gives a nice explanation in his MOOC on NLP, summarized in this slide: In short: with the usual CKY algorithm in PCFG parsing, which is based on ...
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3 votes

Is there a grammar of syntax that takes into account inherent syntactic ambiguity in natural languages?

Yes, cognitive and construction grammars do take ambiguity into account. However, they have to give up a lot of the formal properties of traditional constituency and dependency grammars. It resolves ...
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3 votes

Complex Sentence

A complementizer converts some phrase (usually an S) into a complement. In the form of a phrase structure rule, Complement -> Complementizer S In your example, the complementizer "that" converts ...
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3 votes
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How is there 'no node that c-commands B that A also c-commands'?

As already in other questions you had, I would recommend you just having a look at the definition again: X c-commands Y if X's sister either a) is Y or b) contains Y. This means that nodes can only ...
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  • 6,120
3 votes

Are there right-branching agglutinative languages?

Elamite is agglutinative and (mainly) right-branching, though quotative phrases are left branching. https://archive.org/stream/TheElamiteLanguage1969/Reiner1969TheElamiteLanguagetext#page/n15/mode/...
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3 votes

What is the x-bar tree of 'I am proud of my students'? (having trouble with proud)

(Disclaimer: I am not a specialist in Syntax) According to the X-bar Theory, Adjectives, as any other lexical category, undergo three different levels of projection. They can have Complements (which ...
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3 votes
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Parse Tree Formatter Tools?

Here is a script I quickly assembled from pieces of code I had lying around: https://trinket.io/python3/a33a025467?toggleCode=true&showInstructions=true Beware that this script parses your tree ...
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  • 6,120
3 votes
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Syntax tree for "the Middle East"

"Middle East" is generally considered a single lexeme. While it started out as an ordinary adjective + noun combination (along with "Near East" and "Far East"), it's "fossilized" now: you can't swap ...
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  • 53.2k
3 votes

V to T movement in German

du Schach gespielt hast as you say is an embedded clause, and string-identical to the underlying form Carnie is referring to. (To answer your first question.) As for the question on how to detect V-&...
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