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X-bar theory does require all branching to be binary. So in this theory, coordination is often handled by saying the conjunction is actually the head, and it takes one conjunct as its specifier and the other as its complement. (Some additional machinery then has to be invoked to explain why two conjoined DPs act like a DP, when the head of the phrase is a ...


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Short answer '[I]n the many places where I was guilty of the reprehensible and shockingly common confusion of the notions of "adverb" and "adverbial"; these defects, for which I hang my head in shame, I have corrected wherever I have found them.' McCawley The Syntactic Phenomena of English, 2nd Ed,(p. xii) In the quote above, McCawley ...


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While a constituent is any proper subpart of a sentence (a morpheme, a word, a phrase, or even a clause), a phrase is typically a sequence of words built around a word class (the head) and existing as a unit of structure and function in a sentence. A constituent may or may not be a phrase, but a phrase, if it indeed is a phrase, is always a constituent. Here,...


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