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15

A parasitic gap is a gap that is reliant on the presence of another gap; it is "parasitic" on the other gap. Gaps in general mark positions in the syntactic structure that are empty because what fills them appears elsewhere in the sentence, e.g. (1) Frank rejected the first explanation without even considering it. (2a) Which explanation did Frank ...


12

First of all, the sentence I have my hair cut. is an example of a Construction. That is, there is a special model for this clause, with its own unique sets of meanings, uses, restrictions and affordances. So one shouldn't expect it to be a normal short sentence. And it isn't. In a sentence with only 5 words, there are 2 verbs and two noun phrases, so the ...


5

I have my hair [cut]. This is a catenative construction, where causative "have" is a catenative verb with the past-participial clause "cut" functioning as its catenative complement. The intervening NP "my hair" is the (raised) syntactic object of "have" and the understood (semantic) subject of the subordinate clause.


4

The key property of parasitic gaps is that p here represents the same constituent, such that one of the gaps is "parasitic on" (i.e. coreferential with) the other. For example, in 1b), both the gaps are coreferential with the word candidate. You can understand the semantics as: there exists no candidate, such that if the reporter criticized them ...


3

From David Adger (2003), Core Syntax - A Minimalist Approach, p. 19: [Syntactic] features that have an effect on semantic interpretation [...] are called interpretable features. Person, number and gender are examples of interpretable features in English: (13) The child wails (14) The children wail The plural feature clearly has an effect not just on the ...


2

The fact that the English word yes was a contracted verb form some centuries ago does not affect its status in present day English: Part of Speech classification is essentially synchronic and all tests for certain kinds of part of speech are synchronic judgements of grammaticality. Particle is kind of "none of the parts of speech mentioned and defined ...


2

First of all, it should be noted that in nearly all generative theories--even in ones which generate subjects inside the VP--the subject practically never stays there for long. Subjects generally move upwards into a position where they can receive Case; by most X' accounts, they move up into SpecTP (or SpecIP, etc.). This is what BillJ's response is ...


1

Superscript 0 is universally the symbol for the head of a phrase - note how in your examples, it occurs only on T, Pred and V (as opposed to TP, PredP or VP). I can't say that I'm immediately familiar with superscript 1 and 2 (i.e. this is not as conventional as superscript 0), but if I had to guess: they serve to differentiate multiple independent ...


1

The two word string 'grammatical function' is sometimes used in ad hoc ways by different scholars, where grammatical is an adjective and function is a broad descriptive word, and the two-word string does not refer to any type of formal category. However, the fact that the Original Poster is asking this question—and that they frame it in the way they do—...


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