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The terminology is somewhat vague and ambiguous. In 20th century philosophy, the denotation -- connotation concept pair is indeed roughly the same as that of extension -- intension. In modern linguistics, while "denotation" would still usually be understood as synonymous to "extension", one could also use it as a cover term for both ...


4

Technically speaking, these are not assertions. The technical term is presupposition. Assertions are propositions that one can negate, like The moon is made of green cheese. whose negation is The moon is not made of green cheese. Presuppositions, on the other hand, are propositions that can't be negated so easily. They are occasioned by many different ...


4

What you are looking for is presupposition: Sentence A presupposes sentence B iff both A entails B and the negation of A entails B. An alternative definition is that A presupposition is a proposition such that the speaker acts as if that proposition was true/as if that proposition is taken for granted, i.e. already known. By wrapping the "he lied&...


2

These have been referred to as "lexicalised diminutives" in the literature. This paper by Bagasheva-Koleva is specifically about the phenomenon you're describing in Slavic languages. This dissertation by Katramadou uses the same term to refer to words like Greek κορίτσι (historically the diminutive of κόρη "daughter"). References in the ...


1

On the individual level, there is the well-known phenomenon of Phonetic accommodation when two speakers in a dialogue tend to converge phonetically. I would consider this kind of levelling still as an accommodation process (caused by a superstrate language, as @Yellow Sky has noted in a comment to the question).


1

'The men all have a {noun}' is fine, but 'the men all have {verb}ed' is not. The rule is probably the same one as the one that has us say 'they/we have all {verbed}' rather than 'they/we all have {verbed}'. Also, the other way around for a noun, 'they/we all have a {noun}' rather than e.g. 'they/we have all a hat'.


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