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We typically say rates are 'hiked' and cuts are 'swingeing' - is there a term to describe this?

It seems to me that the phenomenon described here is probably collocation. Collocation is the co-occurence of multiple words/lexemes more frequently than would be expected by random chance, but not ...
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Term referring to the idea that words are contrastive

This is almost certainly structuralism, as first proposed by Saussure, and expanded upon, especially as it relates to other fields, by a number of philosophers and other theorists (e.g. Lévi-Strauss, ...
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What is the name of the category for the vibrations that the tongue does in linguistics?

The name of the category is trill. The R sound in the linked demonstrations of Latin is not a "guttural" sound but an alveolar trill, [r], where the tip of the tongue vibrates against the ...
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What's the opposite of semantic parsing?

(Natural) Language Generation. Although not an opposite of specifically semantic parsing, because a good NLG needs more than just expressing the semantic...
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