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1

Categorization refers to the fact that acoustic stimuli can manifest a continuous range of a phonetic factor, and speakers can be required (in an experiment) to classify that as being of type A versus type B. You can present synthesized stimuli that sound like "tall" or "doll" and manipulate the length of the noise before the vowel, then ...


1

"H5" or "fifth H" is generally transcribed either "h̭" or "ḫ₂", and represents what's very likely a phonemic split in later Egyptian. At a certain point, Egyptian ḫ starts being written in two different ways in group-writing: when it's written with the sign ḫ on its own ("ḫ₁"), it corresponds to ϩ in Sahidic ...


2

Re: your English example. It really depends on what theory you subscribe to. In addition to sense (or meaning), another term I've seen used mostly in linguistic research coming from Eastern Europe is a lexico-semantic (or lexico-grammatical) variant - see a screenshot of page 181 from Karpova and Kartashkova (eds.) 2010 below: The idea is that the ...


3

Another option is wordform, as opposed to lemma. For example, the CELEX corpus allows you to download lists of lemmas, syllables, or wordforms; if you choose lemmas, write and writes would be grouped together in a single entry, but if you choose wordforms, they would be listed separately. However, this usually doesn't include distinctions that are never made ...


4

Your second case is covered by the term "sense" (i.e. the two instances of the word "glass" are different senses) You could make an argument for using the same terminology for the first case too, but it seems a stretch to me, as this syncretism between the 1sg & 3sg imperfect is systematic, meaning one could argue that there is a ...


3

I'm afraid there is no such term. Different entries in dictionaries are usually named lemma but this leaves out the details of your first example with era (1p sg) vs era (3p sg). A lemma is also given in a conventionalised form. And the level of semantic difference that is sufficient to justify different lemmas may vary from dictionary to dictionary and ...


2

A quick lookup finds the term cognitive verb in this reference (A. Fetzer, “And I Think That Is a Very Straightforward Way of Dealing With It”: The Communicative Function of Cognitive Verbs in Political Discourse). I think, this is a standard way to address these verbs. A more differentiated view with further partition in verbs of feeling, verbs of ...


5

The term you are looking for is probably sandhi rules¹. Sandhi is not necessarily restricted to short words, it can in principle apply to any word. Examples for languages with rich sandhi rules are Sanskrit and the surviving Celtic languages with their mutations. EDIT: Another term that is relevant here ist clitic, and there is a process named ...


5

In this sense, a "derived" word is derived from something else within the same language, or a direct ancestor of that language. For example, English "miniature" is borrowed from Italian, but "miniaturization" is derived from that (by adding pieces onto the end) within English itself.


11

The masculine gender/noun class in many languages will be the unmarked option, with other genders/classes being marked. It is often (though not always) possible to use a less marked gender/class. Sometimes a noun might have a marked gender, but other words with agreement affixes might use a less marked gender. One example is Biblical Greek, in which certain ...


46

This strategy to deal with person groups of mixed gender or with single persons of unknown or undetermined gender is named generic masculine. It is quite frequent among languages with grammatical gender.


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