There is a whole strain of research (represented, e.g., by Florian Jaeger) that regards the communication channel as a Noisy Channel in the sense of Shannon. The uniform information density hypothesis postulates that this Noisy Channel is always optimally used with respect to information, and that speakers adjust their utterances to the channel capacity.


A language can be both “analytic” and “synthetic”, the two categories are the polar points in the analytic–synthetic spectrum (or call it ‘continuum’) on which you position languages, that's why some languages are more analytic than others, or one can say, for example, that language X is synthetic with a some analytic features, but its related language Y, ...


"Analytic" and "synthetic" are ends of a continuum regarding morphological versus syntactic means of combining elements, where "more morphology" is on the synthetic end and "more syntax" is on the analytic end. Since a language can use both syntax and morphology to combine elements, and languages do both, a language ...


You can find a somewhat detailed, yet informal discussion of this topic in Chapter 5 of Isac and Reiss 2008/2013 I-Language: An Introduction to Linguistics as Cogntive Science. (I am one of the authors.)


Long after the fact, hhere... Rob Henderson (UArizona Linguistics) and some colleagues have done work on dogwhistles, a specific type of ambiguity, from both formal semantic, and agent-based modeling angles. In the event that you're still interested, you can find some of that work here: https://www.rhenderson.net/papers.html

Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible