7

The terminology is somewhat vague and, to make it worse, sometimes used quite differently across authors and episodes. The SEP article gives a historical overview of the usage of some of these terms, but even today it's a bit of a mess and there is no agreement on the exact meaning of these terms. A good place to start is the distinction between extension ...


5

It is questionable whether there is such a thing as "assimilation of manner" in the same sense that there is assimilation of place. Assimilation of place traditionally refers to wholesale shift in POA as represented in the IPA charts, to t → p, p → k and so on: columns of cells identify a "place". "Manner" cross-classifies rows ...


4

Bleeding is where applying rule A first prevents B from applying, but B could apply if A had not applied – people often say that A "takes away" forms that B can apply to. Counterbleeding is where B would bleed A if B applied first, but A in fact applies first. By applying flapping first (which turns voiceless segments into voiced ones), you take ...


4

This is the result of rule (20b), p. 181 of Chomsky & Halle 1968 The sound pattern of English, colloquially known as "Abelian lengthening". By that rule, a non-high vowel becomes tense (that was later reanalyzed as length) before one consonant followed by an unstressed front vocoid in turn followed by a vowel (i.e. before CĭV).


4

A classic example of cyclic rule application is stress assignment in Palestinian (and other) dialects of Arabic (Brame (1974) "The Cycle in Phonology: Stress in Palestinian, Maltese, and Spanish"). Stress is assigned to the rightmost heavy syllable, with the provision that a single consonant at the end of a word does not define a heavy syllable, thus kátab '...


4

There is a whole strain of research (represented, e.g., by Florian Jaeger) that regards the communication channel as a Noisy Channel in the sense of Shannon. The uniform information density hypothesis postulates that this Noisy Channel is always optimally used with respect to information, and that speakers adjust their utterances to the channel capacity.


3

They are special terminology from the Y model. DS | (overt movement) SS / | (covert movement) PF LF Today it is more common to draw a kind of T model. | | LF __SO__ PF No Deep Structure (DS) in the T model. Surface Structure is nowadays called Spell-out and is rather a point in the derivation (a point in time) than a representational ...


3

How not to do it If one were to apply Kearn's treatment of intensions for predicates to sentences, then in analogy to "the set of all dogs in all worlds" one would end up with "the set of all truth values in all worlds". Under this account, every contingent sentence (= a sentence that is not tautological or self-contradictory, and can ...


2

You can find a somewhat detailed, yet informal discussion of this topic in Chapter 5 of Isac and Reiss 2008/2013 I-Language: An Introduction to Linguistics as Cogntive Science. (I am one of the authors.)


2

Wikipedia defines the source and target domains as: Source domain: the conceptual domain from which we draw metaphorical expressions (e.g., love is a journey). Target domain: the conceptual domain that we try to understand (e.g., love is a journey). So in this case it's the other way around than you have described, with 'water / rain' being the source ...


2

I agree with user6726's answer. I find that it relieves confusion to always state the counter-relations in the passive voice -- that way, the rules are stated in the order they would need to be in a linear ordering theory. If Tapping is before Raising, Tapping bleeds Raising. If Raising is before Tapping, Raising is counterbled by Tapping. (Likewise for &...


2

A language can be both “analytic” and “synthetic”, the two categories are the polar points in the analytic–synthetic spectrum (or call it ‘continuum’) on which you position languages, that's why some languages are more analytic than others, or one can say, for example, that language X is synthetic with a some analytic features, but its related language Y, ...


2

"Analytic" and "synthetic" are ends of a continuum regarding morphological versus syntactic means of combining elements, where "more morphology" is on the synthetic end and "more syntax" is on the analytic end. Since a language can use both syntax and morphology to combine elements, and languages do both, a language ...


2

In good boy, /ɡʊb bɔɪ/, we see that the last consonant of good has become a /b/. In isolation the last consonant of good would be a /d/. If we give these two phonemes their Voice Place Manner labels, /d/ would be a ᴠᴏɪᴄᴇᴅ ᴅᴇɴᴛᴀʟ ᴘʟᴏsɪᴠᴇ and /b/ would be a ᴠᴏɪᴄᴇᴅ ʙɪʟᴀʙɪᴀʟ ᴘʟᴏsɪᴠᴇ. So we can see that whilst the last consonant of good is still voiced and still ...


1

Summarizing the scattered answers from this and your originally posted (multi) question: his friends (of now) were rich then his friends (of then) were rich then (credit: someone(?) from your original question) his friends were rich (the speaker concludes) (credit: @WillC in this thread)


1

Perhaps 'then' means something closer to 'in that case' here, ie the speaker could be narrating a situation in the past where some kind of evidence or information has come to light which allowed them to surmise that all of Torah's friends are rich. They say to themself, 'ah, so all Torah's friends are rich then' - in the indirect form of past tense narration ...


1

This is a difficult history and sociology of the field question, fraught with personal opinions and revisionism. GB theory commenced with the (originally samizdat) publication of "The Pisa Lectures" in the late 70's and the 1981 general publication. Principles and Parameters is a term that was used later (Chomsky & Lasnik 1993) within that ...


1

In English, there are only 2 aspects: continuous (I'm reading, I wasn't reading, I have been reading, the book is being read) and non-continuous a.k.a. simple (I read, I didn't read, I have read it, I haven't read it, the book wasn't read). Whatever you do, you will never convert an English verb into the perfective aspect or into the imperfective aspect, ...


1

This question is confused about truth values of statements. For an overview, we can assign different truthvalues to the phrase "He must be Mr. Wright". For one, we are sure that it is truly a grammatically well formed sentence. But is the information also true? We might say that it is equivalent in a many-world interpretation to the statement "...


1

Indeed, the hierarchy T > (Neg) > (M) > (Perf) > (Prog) > v > V is in order of descending height in the verbal chain. If each type is present, TP will be above the others, then NegP will be its complement, MP the complement of that, etc, all the way down to VP being the complement of vP. The parentheses indicate optionality. Under this ...


1

The classical transformational analysis is that the deep structure is [[(Someone)] [must confess [that he was disappointed]]]. This gives you "the meaning" of the sentence. This is passivized to give you [[that he was disappointed] [must be confessed (by someone)]], but you can get rid of the agent phrase. Then you extrapose the sentential ...


1

First thing to remember is that in OT, constraints do not allow, they forbid. Second thing to remember is that markedness constraints are about all representations, not just featuress. Third thing to remember is that all constraint, not just markedness, are claimed to be universal. Fourth thing to remember is that while it is a prevalent trend in OT to ...


1

The natural phenomena are the source, and the attack/action is the target, in this case. There are numerous examples in English of acts of physical aggression being compared to weather phenomena, specifically precipitation, so the conceptual metaphor could be WAR IS WEATHER or more specific, like VIOLENCE IS PRECIPITATION. Here are some other examples from ...


1

"Linguistic categories" are categories (a general term) found in language. There is no definitive list of such categories. You appear to want to exclude phonetic and phonological categories, but including or excluding P-categories does not change the meaning of "category", it just narrows the set of posited categories. "Categories" are conventional names ...


1

A little history on this might be useful. In the early 20th century, syntax was thought to be defined basically in the way you describe your "acceptability problem." That is, the central question is "how can we predict which word-strings are (un)acceptable to speakers?" However, what Chomsky did when he initiated Generative Grammar was change the question ...


1

Long after the fact, hhere... Rob Henderson (UArizona Linguistics) and some colleagues have done work on dogwhistles, a specific type of ambiguity, from both formal semantic, and agent-based modeling angles. In the event that you're still interested, you can find some of that work here: https://www.rhenderson.net/papers.html


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