20

In Cantonese songs, one of two things happen — the tones are preserved in a particular way, or the tones are ignored. The paper Tone and melody in Cantonese by Marjorie K.M. Chan has some information on how often the tones are preserved, showing that the tonal contrasts are largely preserved by the melody in a small sample of 90s HK pop songs. The paper is ...


11

There is no way to know without specific information from the source. In some traditions it means "toneless, unstressed". In some traditions, a specific tone is left out – it could be H, L, or Mid. It could mean "the same as what comes before" (the Christaller system, used in some African languages).


10

Let me speak only about Thai language and what rules govern the loanwords. Other languages may well "behave" the other way. is it generally true that the "closest" tones will be borrowed as well as the "closest" phonemes? Short answer: Yes, but not always for phonemes; Usually No for tones. I would also say that it's useful to know how words borrowed ...


8

I would not separate lexical tone here. There are many other lexical tools. Depending on your native and studied languages, you will (or will not) be able to hear when these tools are used and use it by yourself. Here are some examples: Consonant-related — fricative, aspiration, palatalization: A Russian speaker will quickly grasp palatalization, but ...


8

I found this article, which states that Mandarin Chinese natives and English natives when trained on recognizing lexical tones advanced about equally fast in their training but found different tones to be among the most difficult. Abstract below. Two groups of listeners, one of native speakers of a tone language (Mandarin Chinese) and one of native ...


8

All human languages use exhaled pronunciations and not inhaled pronunciations ("inhalation" i.e. breathing is talked about in phonetics as using "ingressive lung air": read a basic speech and hearing science textbook to understand the mechanics of inhalation, for example Minifie, Hixon & Williams 1973). So tonal languages, specifically, do as well. It is ...


6

The short answer is--yes, there are many tone languages that express certain kinds of questions (usually echo questions or yes-no questions) intonationally, and more often than not the intonational contour is in some sense "rising". Before continuing it should be noted that there are documented cases of languages--tonal and non-tonal--that mark questions ...


6

Moira Yip discusses this issue in Chapter 2 of her book Tone. The short answer: four, possibly five. HOWEVER, this question is not as straightforward to answer as one might think; tones can be defined in terms of phonological contrast--like phonemes--or phonetic contrasts--like phones. Just like segmental phonemes, tones are often analyzed as surfacing ...


6

There's an interesting answer when it comes to English as spoken by Cantonese speakers from Hong Kong, where tone can even distinguish words that would be homophones in English. Generally, stressed syllables in English will come out with tone 1 (contour 55), which is high level tone. Unstressed syllables are of two types: final unstressed syllables end up ...


5

Vietnamese has six tones.Cantonese has nine.


5

This may not be the type of answer you were hoping for. You are correct in asserting that most tone languages can be analyzed from a phonological perspective as including words or syllables that lack a specification for tone. Some examples: Mandarin can be analyzed as having "neutral" tone specified on things like the sentence-final particle -le. Many ...


5

In Vietnamese songs the tones will generally follow the melodies. Of course sometimes there still be some odd, out-of-tone sounds but most of it is a product of an amateur musician. As André Müller said in this answer: In my experience, this is different in other tonal languages, pop songs and chansons in Vietnamese have quite clearly audible tones and ...


4

The Khmer language isn't tonal, but it's surrounded by tonal languages although not all of them belong to one family (but they form a sprachbund). In a more general context, there are many languages that have lost phonemic vowel length, which might be related to the loss of tones as an internal process.


4

I don't think issue has been explored in a systematic way, and it's not clear how it could be. Theoretically, one might record human language contrasts like tal, thal, ttal uttered by a parrot (how do you decide that the parrot intended to utter tal versus thal?), and present them to human speakers of the language, to see if (without training) they correctly ...


3

The standard used for English by phoneticians these days is TOBI. It is language-specific enough that if you want to apply it to French, you'd have to use TODI, TOBI etc. as models for developing FTOBI, since it requires language-specific categorization decisions. It doesn't actually use tone mark diacritics like acute, circumflex etc. as are conventional in ...


3

Attempts to define tone types (e.g. rising, falling; mid, high, low) in terms of phonetic properties don't go very far, and crash when you try to devise rigorous criteria that apply to all tones within a language, in the same way for all languages (the strong sense of "same"). A falling tone is roughly one where F0 decreases within the syllable over time, ...


3

Many good points have been made in other answers and comments, but I think we need to unpack some of the assumptions (implicit and explicit) made in your question. ASSUMPTION 1: The world's languages can be divided into the binary categories of "tone languages" and "intonational languages". This is false. All languages have intonation. A subset of those ...


3

"Pitch" is the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency which is the rate of vibration of the vocal folds (in speech). "Intensity" is the perceptual correlate of... I'll say RMS amplitude. There are a lot of things that determine amplitude, such as the openness of the vocal tract. In vowels, Fundamental Frequency (F0) does often correlate with amplitude,...


3

The answer is it depends, just like any other phoneme. Changes in tonal system are fairly common, and examples of "speech varieties" that are still considered (more or less) the same by their own communities include: Southern Vietnamese has merged the hỏi and ngã tones (to my ears the merged tone has characteristics of both, but is closer to ngã), and ...


3

Tone sandhi is the term you are looking for. According to Wikipedia, Tone sandhi is a phonological change occurring in tonal languages, in which the tones assigned to individual words or morphemes change based on the pronunciation of adjacent words or morphemes. See also this question and my answer for it (pay attention to the links within): How does ...


3

I just call them near homophones. Tone is still a phonemic feature, so there's nothing particularly special. Would you also try to distinguish near homophones that differ only in nasalization of a vowel?


3

The largest number of levels (actual level tones, not contours) is 6, in the language Chori, documented in his 1976 U. Wisconsin dissertation Aspects Of The Tonal Structure Of Chori. He proposes rules for deriving 3 of these tone levels from underlying tone sequences, but those rules are not surface allophonic rules (the conditioning tones are often not ...


3

This is a very wide-ranging question. Perhaps I could answer it with reference to one language with which I have occupied myself fairly extensively, namely Vietnamese. Standard Vietnamese (Hanoi dialect) has six contrasting tones corresponding to the six tones of the orthography. At a narrow phonetic level they can be described as a complex bundle ...


3

Lanna ( northern thai ) has six tones as well


3

In Thai language tone is ALWAYS preserved when singing, some of the most exceptionally composed pieces will even use this to their advantage by applying a a lyric that will in turn producing a pleasing melody which add dimensions to the existing song. From what I heard, there are about 3 generations of a class of music currently employ in Thai language. ...


3

Depending on how you analyze it, Trique may have as many as 15 tones, built from 5 pitch levels.


2

Lao has five tones (like Thai) in the south. But Lao has six tones in the north. ... In the capital, Vientiane, which is supposed to set the standard for the Lao language, there has been an ongoing debate about whether the local spoken variety has five or six tones. I encountered teaching materials bluntly stating five, others bluntly stating six, and ...


2

Most dialects of Wú have 7 or 8 tones, however some such as those around Wujiang have up to 12 or 15 tones, depending on which topolect. Ultimately, 5 tones is a pretty small inventory. Shanghainese has the lowest number of tones in Wú with 5.


2

There are two ways of looking at the "weight" of tone: significance imputed by linguists doing an analysis, and degree to which it interferes with comprehension, for speakers. Based especially on African tonal systems, I have concluded that tonal differences are perceptually less important, compared to segmental differences. Another way to put this is that ...


2

The traditional account is that formants frequencies are based on tube length, with resonances being at those frequencies corresponding to 4L, 4/3L, 4/5L, 4/7L... Formants shift up or down as the tube is shortened or lengthened. (Adding a constriction for [i] vs [a], for example, gives you the complex F1,F2 pattern that we pay attention to: for the moment, ...


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