47 votes

Is J. R. R. Tolkien's "translation" scheme found in real life?

Yes, a good example of such a book is Il nome della rosa (“The Name of the Rose”), 1980, written by Umberto Eco and then translated into Russian in 1988 by Elena Kostioukovitch. The translation is ...
Yellow Sky's user avatar
  • 18.3k
19 votes

Is there a list of word meanings that are universally represented in all languages?

The Natural Semantic Metalanguage is a project that aims to identify the universal building blocks of human language, or "semantic primes". After four decades of empirical research they have ...
curiousdannii's user avatar
  • 6,193
17 votes
Accepted

Is there a list of word meanings that are universally represented in all languages?

No, there may not be any universal meanings. Here is an example. In most (maybe all) Bantu languages, there is no word for "hand" and no word for "arm", because there is a word ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83.1k
11 votes

Is J. R. R. Tolkien's "translation" scheme found in real life?

This is actually done fairly frequently in RPG video games. The most recent example that comes to mind is Genshin Impact. The source language is Chinese, but the setting of the game is loosely based ...
lavender_oni's user avatar
1 vote

Corpus with sentences translated to English

There is a specific page for parallel data, with a curated list of data sets and data directories in machinetranslate.org: https://machinetranslate.org/parallel-data
Johnny's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote

What is the standard/comprehensive reference for grammatical number in different languages?

I found https://www.unicode.org/cldr/charts/43/supplemental/language_plural_rules.html, which seems like a perfect resource.
ChaseMedallion's user avatar
1 vote

The Phoenician or Punic Term for Captain

Looking at the the two main English-language Phoenician-Punic dictionaries there's no definitive statement. Tomback's A Comparative Semitic Lexicon of the Phoenician and Punic Languages suggests RB ʾN(...
Tristan's user avatar
  • 8,322
1 vote

The Phoenician or Punic Term for Captain

Captain really has two sources: Latin capitāneus (from caput 'head'), which originally just meant 'large' or 'capital (of letters)', and in Medieval Latin also 'chief, man in charge' (chieftain is ...
Cairnarvon's user avatar
  • 2,077
1 vote
Accepted

Are there ways to convey any type of knowledge from one language to another?

Yes, of course, it is possible as demonstrated by great wealth of translations all around the globe. Even difficult texts that introduce new cultural concepts are undertaken all the time, and they are ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
1 vote

How do you attest that two modal particles in different languages are of similar semantic attributes?

To say that two utterances in one or more languages are semantically "similar", you have to have some kind of atoms of semantic representation. It is easy to find two sentences where someone ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83.1k
1 vote
Accepted

How do you attest that two modal particles in different languages are of similar semantic attributes?

The way I would do it is: Get a (large-ish) corpus of sentence-aligned translated texts, both NL->EN and EN->NL. collect all sentences with well and then find their respective translations. In ...
Oliver Mason's user avatar
1 vote

Is calque equal to literal translation?

No. Literal translation refers to full sentences or texts while calque refers to a translation unit (word or multi-word expression). You can do literal translation without ever using a single calque, ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
1 vote

Is calque equal to literal translation?

No. Calquing is the use of literal translation of a word or phrase to refer to the same thing that word or phrase refers to. So literal translation alone wouldn't be a calque.
Nardog's user avatar
  • 4,931

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