35

Turkish and Hungarian are typologically similar: They are both agglutinating languages with vowel harmony and rather rich vowel inventories. They are, to our best knowledge, not genetically related. Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family including Finnish, Estonian, Sami, and about a dozen languages spoken in Russia. Turkish belongs to the Turkic ...


21

Yes, they share many characteristics. But so do most of the other language families in the area, which includes most of Central Asia. It is not clear that they are related; opinions differ. There is a proposed (but not accepted) reconstructed proto-language family called Altaic. Roughly, it's a stripe of Asia with Korean and Japanese on the east end, Turkic ...


13

In the monumental Old Turkic Dictionary ("Древнетюркский словарь", Наука, Л., 1969) it is written that Kent/Kənd is really of the Sogdian origin. The dictionary reflects the words found in the Turkic written records of the 7th - 13th centuries. The word Kent is not there, but the word Kend redirects to Känd, to page 290, and here is the screenshot of the ...


12

Hungarian belongs to the Ugric subgroup of the Uralic language family, while Turkish belongs to the controversial Altaic language family. Nevertheless, Hungarian has had some kind of contact with Turkic languages, hence the influence in its vocabulary. However language relationship cannot be based on loanwords and contact based influence, but systematic ...


10

As far as I'm aware, "auxiliary noun" is essentially a synonym for "relational noun" (see Wikipedia). These are basically nouns that can be used to fulfil the role of adpositions, postpositions in the case of Kyrgyz (or Turkish). An example from Kyrgyz would be: Үй ич-ин-де мышык уктап жатат. house.NOM inside-POSS-LOC cat.NOM sleeping is ...


9

No. Your friend is right about Uighur being Turkic. But Persian is not Turkic; it's Indo-European, so lexical similarity between these languages is going to be VERY low and limited to a few loan-words. From what I can tell, the only thing that's similar is the alphabet, both having been derived from Arabic.


8

I'm fairly sure that the language is Armenian. For example, the second word on the top line is միշտ (mishd) meaning "always", and the fourth line has the words քեզ (kez) "you" and մարդ (mard) "man". I'm not fluent enough in Armenian to easily decipher the whole text, but the final line appears to read "January 1861".


8

Duden and other sources state that -lich is a grammaticalized form of the Middle High German līch ["body"] (which also gave rise to Leiche). -ly, -lich, -lijk (and Scandinavian forms) are actually all of similar derivation and converge to a single Germanic ancestral suffix (see discussion on details here). The Turkic -lik appeared already in the Old Turkic ...


8

As for the title question, the answer would be "many languages, including proto-Chinese". Focusing on the question in the body, the language spoken by the historical ancestors of proto-Turks, there are two main options. One is that they spoke "pre-proto-Turkic", that is, an undocumented language whose properties are not presently recoverable. As for the name ...


7

The alternative to the Altaic theory is that every language group included in there (that is Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, Japonic and Korean in its widest form, any theory that directly links Uralic with Altaic has been dead for a century now) constitutes an unrelated language family and any similarity (which is undeniably there) is due to borrowing and ...


7

The first two similar syllables of the Mongolian word pose a difficult problem for those who want to correlate them with the two different syllables of the Turkic word. Actually, the modern Khalkha Mongolian жижиг comes from the Old Mongolian didig, which also has the two first syllables identical, and the Turkish küçük comes from the Proto-Turkic *kičük. So,...


6

This similarity is rather coincidental. According to widely accepted theories, Turkish and Germanic languages aren't cognates. And plural endings usually don't get borrowed from one language to another, except a part of a noun. Are you sure that the Turkish plural ending is ''-er'' and ''-ar''? Not ''-ler'' and ''-lar''? For example: kitap ("book") — ...


6

There is no known linguistic relation. For (unprovable) ideas about a relationship, cf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasiatic_languages.


5

The examples you gave are indeed Turkish, but they are not greeting words. Instead they are questions basically "How are you". You can say that in Turkish "Nasılsınız?". The root Esen is used for greetings in old texts (Kutadgu Bilig, Divan-ı Lügati-t Türk), as more or less as it is used in modern Turkish Esenlikler olsun.


5

As a matter of fact, there still are a number of linguists believing that some or all of the families considered to belong to the putative Altaic stock are related one way or another. "Core Altaic" and "Extended Altaic" The traditional "core" members were Turkic, Mongolic and Tungusic, with Japonic and Koreic being added in more recent decades. As to ...


5

There is no relation between the cited words.


5

You're right to suspect that the accuracy can potentially be very good, but, in practice, unfortunately, as of 2019, most of the major systems - those from Google, Microsoft, Baidu, Yandex, Facebook, Amazon, DeepL and so on - use bridging via English for almost all pairs, even closely related ones. The reason for this is simply pragmatic. Those systems ...


5

Words are not cited as Persian or Avestan loans just because they are attested in texts. Iranic languages have loans as well. If an Iranic word (e.g. birādar 'brother' > Turkish biradar) is without a doubt Indo-European, that is to say it has cognates in Celtic, Greek, Latin, Baltic etc then there is no doubt it is a loan into Turkic. If you're looking to ...


5

Turkic üçün is a postposition meaning “because of, on account of”. It is undeniably Turkic; see Clauson, Etym. dictionary of pre-13th-century Turkish, p. 28 seq. Persian čūn is a conjunction meaning “when, since” and a preposition meaning “like, as”. It has an impeccable Iranian etymology: Old Iranian či-gauna “what colour” > Middle Persian čiyōn > New ...


4

There are three reasons that words in different languages may sound similar: Common origin; Loans; and Coincidence. Common origin gives us series of related words. For instance, English "father" and Latin "pater" have a common origin. But then we have a whole series of words that have a similar fonetic structure in Germanic languages and other Indo-...


3

I totally agree with fdb. Although I cannot say if it is used in Central Asian Turkic Languages( Turkmen, Uzbek and Uighur), for certain I can say that (not sure about today but) it existed in Azerbaijani. Look at the example from Fuzuli: "Gam değil ehl-i garaz eylerse benden men’-i hayr / Gam değil ehl-i hased bağlarsa ben miskîne kin" edit: A quick search ...


3

I cannot answer the first part of your question, but as far as etymology goes it is very straight-forward: it is from Persian kīn “hatred” (from Middle Persian kēn, Avestan kaēna- “revenge”).


3

The root is not known. But for etymology I would recommend Misalli Büyük Türkçe Sözlük (It is online on kubbealtilugati.com . According to it, bakır has been used since the old Turkic, but there are some claims that it can be loan word from an Iranian Language (Sogdian maybe?) Source: http://kubbealtilugati.com/sonuclar.aspx?km=bak%C4%B1r&mi=0


3

There is no evidence that bakır comes from any other living language family, and cognates of it are present in many other Turkic languages. Yakut uses the Turkic root for gold, many major Turkic languages use the Iranic word مس (mis) and a few others жез, джез ‎(compare Mongolian зэс). bakır was borrowed into Balkan languages from Ottoman Turkish. In any ...


3

I am not sure that there is any good explanation. Clauson’s Etymological dictionary writes that “there is utter confusion in the Turkish languages about the words for 'spring' and 'summer'”. Perhaps this reflects an older situation where the Turks distinguished only two seasons: hot and cold.


3

In Turkish father is baba. Maybe Turkish spoken in Cappadocia has dadas (not sure), which is a native Anatolian word (attested also in Cappadocian Greek). Turkish dede however means grandfather. Generally local dialects might have picked up native Anatolian words such as Lydian taada, Luwian tatta and Carian ted. Those extinct languages are all Indo-European....


3

Within Germanic, it's only the North and West Germanic languages that have /y/ (and /œ æ/, which you didn't ask about, but which owe their existence to the same umlaut phenomenon); Gothic lacks these sounds and they're accordingly not reconstructed for Proto-Germanic. It's possible that Northwest Germanic languages got these sounds as a result of Uralic ...


3

No relation. Bin or min is Bıng (not with a i but ı) in the old Turkic. Dil is Tıl (not with a i but ı) in the old Turkic. And its real meaning is tongue not language.


3

I would suggest Misalli Büyük Türkçe Sözlük prepared by İlhan Ayverdi. You can find the online version http://lugatim.com/


2

Close front rounded /y/ also occurs in Romance Piemontese and Lombard in NC/NE Italy, These languages are sometimes called Gallo-Italian but their /y/ (in Lombard also /ø/) are probably not related to French. There are no fronted round vowels in neighboring Occitan.


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