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40

From the perspective of linguistics, the question is meaningless though well-intentioned. "Word" is not a well-defined technical concept in linguistics (or, some people may have concocted a definition of "word" for their purposes, but there isn't even a widely-believed definition). The best definition is "a maximal string of letters ...


35

Turkish and Hungarian are typologically similar: They are both agglutinating languages with vowel harmony and rather rich vowel inventories. They are, to our best knowledge, not genetically related. Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family including Finnish, Estonian, Sami, and about a dozen languages spoken in Russia. Turkish belongs to the Turkic ...


18

Rather than a direct answer, let me explain why it makes little sense to ask such a question. Current languages didn't appear at a distinct moment in time,[1] but rather it evolved gradually from an older language. For example, Bulgarian (see Bulgarian language#History) descended from Proto-Slavic (also ancestor of other Slavic languages, e.g. Russian), ...


17

Is there a name for this phenomenon? There are several in fact, but there doesn't seem to be a single unified term, which is quite a problem because it makes looking it up a real pain in the neck. Amazingly of languages that have this feature I have yet to see one have a specific native name for it. I myself as a Turkish speaker describe this to people ...


15

Turkish has a rule of vowel harmony: it depends on the vowel of the preceding syllable. You get [a] after u ı o a and [e] after ü i ö e. There are some complications about final consonants in loan words which can be treated as exceptions. The t vs d thing has to do with whether there is a previous voiceless consonant. This might clarify things for you.


15

In German, noun phrases that are used to describe a separate entity other than their individual nouns are written without spaces. Thus, the example of Kraftfahrzeug-Haftpflichtversicherung may indeed be considered as a "bunch of words" in the sense you have described. In Turkish however, this is not true. The example in Turkish you have provided ...


13

In the monumental Old Turkic Dictionary ("Древнетюркский словарь", Наука, Л., 1969) it is written that Kent/Kənd is really of the Sogdian origin. The dictionary reflects the words found in the Turkic written records of the 7th - 13th centuries. The word Kent is not there, but the word Kend redirects to Känd, to page 290, and here is the screenshot of the ...


12

Hungarian belongs to the Ugric subgroup of the Uralic language family, while Turkish belongs to the controversial Altaic language family. Nevertheless, Hungarian has had some kind of contact with Turkic languages, hence the influence in its vocabulary. However language relationship cannot be based on loanwords and contact based influence, but systematic ...


10

The Greek word kalamos “reed, reed pen, stylus” has a good Indo-European etymology (cognate with, for example, German Halm “reed”). It was borrowed not only in Arabic, as qalam, but also into Sanskrit as kalama-. The Tocharian word is presumably borrowed from Sanskrit. The Turkish word is from Arabic.


8

Duden and other sources state that -lich is a grammaticalized form of the Middle High German līch ["body"] (which also gave rise to Leiche). -ly, -lich, -lijk (and Scandinavian forms) are actually all of similar derivation and converge to a single Germanic ancestral suffix (see discussion on details here). The Turkic -lik appeared already in the Old Turkic ...


8

Turkish is a typical head-final language which means that nouns, which are the heads of noun phrases (NP) and verbs which are the heads of verb phrases (VP) always come at the end of those phrases. Because of this, the adjectives always come before the nouns they are attributes of, like in "güzel ev", this is an NP, "(a) beautiful house", an adjective + a ...


7

The first two similar syllables of the Mongolian word pose a difficult problem for those who want to correlate them with the two different syllables of the Turkic word. Actually, the modern Khalkha Mongolian жижиг comes from the Old Mongolian didig, which also has the two first syllables identical, and the Turkish küçük comes from the Proto-Turkic *kičük. So,...


7

Nişanyan gives this table in his etymological dictionary of Turkish (Sözlerin Soyağacı, ISBN: 9789752896369): Front consonants: ب‎ ت‎ ث‎ ج‎ ز‎ س‎ ش‎ ك‎ ل‎ م‎ ن‎ ه‎ ی‎ Back consonants: ح‎ خ‎ ص‎ ض‎ ط‎ ظ‎ ع‎ غ‎ ق‎ Unstable consonants: د‎ ذ‎ ر‎ ف‎ و‎‎ You can look here for what consonants they correspond to in Ottoman Turkish (it didn't change much since ...


7

There is no known linguistic relation. For (unprovable) ideas about a relationship, cf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasiatic_languages.


7

There doesn't appear to be such a list, hence I made you one based on this word list: i o aç iç öç uç üç ad od öd af of öf uf ağ eğ iğ ah eh ıh oh ak ek ok al el il ol öl an en in on ön un ün ar er ör ur as es is ıs us üs aş eş iş üş at et it ot öt ut üt av ev iv ov öv ay ey oy uy az ez iz öz uz üz be de he le ne re ve ye bu hu mu su şu da ...


7

the house is nice is a sentence. Its equivalant is Ev güzeldir which is a sentence too. For convinience people say ev güzel. On the other hand güzel ev is not a complete sentence. Bu güzel evdir is a complete sentence. People can omit -dır for convenience. I think this is why you are confused. Adjectives come before nouns all the time except when it is used ...


7

I wondered about this and answered my own question on the German StackExchange. The phenomenon exists in German dialects, but not Standard German (with the possible exception of Pate; see below). I found one article by Germanist Wilhelm Schoof, "Die deutschen Verwandtschaftsnamen" (Zeitschrift für hochdeutsche Mundarten, 1900, Link), where he coins the term ...


6

"Torpedo* in the meaning of dashboard / front panel in a car also exists in Ukrainian. Briefly, the etymology seems to be quite complicated: Latin torpedo — "electric ray"; 19th century — sea mine; 1870's — self-propelled sea mine; 1900's — cigar-shaped racing car; Later, the meaning has changed towards "hood", and further to "dashboard/front panel". 1. ...


6

Your observation is correct and you're not missing anything. The original case information is simply lost with -DIK (and -(y)EcEK) participles. So is most of the original tense information by the way: -DIK is for relative non-future and -(y)EcEK is for relative future but finer distinctions are lost. If context is not enough to recover the lost information ...


5

There is no relation between the cited words.


5

"to my knowledge, it doesn't exist in English or French for example" Actually, my father, born in a Francoprovençal village, often called me "mon petit père" or "mon gros père" (I used to be a chubby baby) until I was 5 or 6, and he was not alone in doing so with his sons. My father-in-law, a Picard farmer with a lot of dialectal phrases in his French, ...


5

The quoted sentence from the Wikipedia article isn't very clear, and I wouldn't be confident that the author knew what they were talking about. Syllables and syllabification rules are very theoretical topics. I think most theories that recognize the syllable as a unit of analysis do include reasons for the supposed "maximal onset principle" (or some similar ...


5

Words are not cited as Persian or Avestan loans just because they are attested in texts. Iranic languages have loans as well. If an Iranic word (e.g. birādar 'brother' > Turkish biradar) is without a doubt Indo-European, that is to say it has cognates in Celtic, Greek, Latin, Baltic etc then there is no doubt it is a loan into Turkic. If you're looking to ...


5

Turkic üçün is a postposition meaning “because of, on account of”. It is undeniably Turkic; see Clauson, Etym. dictionary of pre-13th-century Turkish, p. 28 seq. Persian čūn is a conjunction meaning “when, since” and a preposition meaning “like, as”. It has an impeccable Iranian etymology: Old Iranian či-gauna “what colour” > Middle Persian čiyōn > New ...


4

There are three reasons that words in different languages may sound similar: Common origin; Loans; and Coincidence. Common origin gives us series of related words. For instance, English "father" and Latin "pater" have a common origin. But then we have a whole series of words that have a similar fonetic structure in Germanic languages and other Indo-...


4

A Frequency Dictionary of Turkish by Yeşim Aksan, Mustafa Aksan, Ümit Mersinli and Umut Ufuk Demirhan (Routledge, 2017) contains the 5,000 most common words in Turkish, based on a 50 million word corpus. The words are listed by frequency; each has an example sentence. (There is an alphabetical index at the end.)


4

According to Zimmer & Orgun (1999, p. 155), the letter <ğ> has different pronunciation acording to its environment: Word-finally and preconsonantally, it lengthens the preceding vowel. Between front vowels /e, i, ø, y/ it is an approximant, either front-velar [ɰ̟] or palatal [j]. Otherwise, intervocalic ğ is phonetically zero (deleted). Since in the ...


4

Definitely, it's especially common for certain verbs. Bir ev tahliye ettirildi Translation: A house was evacuated In Istanbul, following the past earthquake many houses cracked (sic.). Among these, opposite of the Süreyyapaşa factory in Balat, was a new four-story stone house whose cracks were deemed so dangerous that yesterday security ...


3

The root is not known. But for etymology I would recommend Misalli Büyük Türkçe Sözlük (It is online on kubbealtilugati.com . According to it, bakır has been used since the old Turkic, but there are some claims that it can be loan word from an Iranian Language (Sogdian maybe?) Source: http://kubbealtilugati.com/sonuclar.aspx?km=bak%C4%B1r&mi=0


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