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40

Yes, there are. Most famous is of course the Chinese script with several thousand characters. For Unicode purposes, Korean also has a lot of characters, because Unicode encodes Korean syllables as one character (and not just the hangul alphabet). Even the Latin script has surpassed the limit of 127 characters because there are many accented letters (like ...


16

Chinese, Japanese, Sumerian, Akkadian, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Sanskrit, the list is endless.


14

The formal description has been already given in the excellent @ColinFine's answer. Let me give a different description in "layman terms". Mongolian characters usually have four distinct forms: isolate, initial, medial, and final. Vowels A and E have exactly the same glyphs in their final form. Here are the four forms for A and E, correspondingly. Note, ...


11

Perhaps it is helpful to understand some of the history behind this mixed system. Originally, Hebrew was never written with niqudot (diacritics added above, below, or within consonantal signs; singular niqud). Although there is a high theoretical ambiguity in such a writing system (e.g. שמר for šāmar 'he guarded', šəmor 'guard!', šomēr '(a) guard') this ...


11

In corpus lingustics we deal with corpora containing emojis, e.g., twitter corpora or other corpora of computer mediated communication, and thus it is a legitimate question how to treat them. Stand-alone emojis are treated as words (or wordforms) and they are even assigned a special part of speech named "Symbol" in Universal Dependencies (for an ...


10

By policy, UNICODE does not assign code points for contextual variants. Some contextual variants are in by exception—their purpose is to guarantee round-trip equivalence with some older legacy standards that were in existence before UNICODE. So you should go with the single code point for ARABIC LETTER DOTLESS FEH (U+06A1) and let the typesetting engine do ...


8

For an alphabet used for a single language, Vietnamese has: 29 letters (including the vowels without tone marks) 12 vowels can accept 5 tone marks each All these of course in upper and lower case For a total of 178 letters. The Windows-1258 codepage solves this by implementing the tone marks as combining characters only (except for some of the composed ...


8

آ U-0622. It is called Alef with madda.


7

The only writing system that comes close to what you describe is the IPA, or the now-deprecated APA. However, if you add the consideration of being "phonemic", then we would have to know exactly what you mean by that. IPA has the resources to write distinctions that are not phonemic (in some language), for instance aspiration which is not phonemic in English ...


6

The Unicode 30 spec says, in section 11.4: U+180E MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR is a word-internal thin whitespace that may occur only before the word-final vowels U+1820 MONGOLIAN LETTER A and U+1821 MONGOLIAN LETTER E. It determines the specific form of the character preceding it, selects a special variant shape of these vowels, and produces a small gap ...


6

The words "transliteration" and "transcription" are often used interchangeably. If you want to draw a distinction between them, the distinction is usually that "transliteration" tries to encode the original grapheme sequence as losslessly and efficiently as possible, while "transcription" tries to encode the original phoneme sequence as losslessly and ...


5

Most well documented writing systems have been encoded in Unicode, at least to some degree. You can see a list of supported scripts here and code charts for each script here. A few scripts (including some that have been assigned ISO-15924 codes) are not yet encoded, though some of those are pending. If you wish to type using one of these scripts, you would ...


5

One can actually read a transliterated text. Hardly possible with a sequence of Unicode numeric codes. If you want the most exact replication of the text, then even Unicode might not be "best" (your wording). You might need a photograph or an accurate drawing. Often you do not need the details of the graphics, you need to reproduce the sequence of letters ...


5

There is another universal script, called Shwa. It can be seen here : www.shwa.org Shwa has two huge advantages over IPA: - it's featural, so letterforms give you a good idea of the sound value, and - it only needs a 20-key keyboard, not the 160+-key keyboard you'd need for IPA. The IPA is adequate for linguistics, but it is not a candidate for a ...


5

This is only a partial answer : æ, ǽ, ǣ and ǣ́ may be used to write a vowel present in Old English. This vowel can be short(æ) or long(ǣ), unstressed(æ,ǣ) or stressed(ǽ,ǣ́). Some random examples: æ : Beowulf.53 : Ðā wæs on búrgum Bḗow Scýldìnga, ǽ : Beowulf.3 : hū ðā ǽþelíngas éllen frémedon. ǣ : Beowul.32 : Þǣr æt hȳ́ðe stṓd hrínġedstéfna ...


4

That's correct. In English, a ditransitive verb (one that takes both a direct and an indirect object) can usually have two different word orders: S V D to I, or S V I D. In other words, "he gave the book to her", or "he gave her the book". In this case, this is the SVID order: it could be rephrased as "the school has given serious consideration to David's ...


4

Searching this page on the Unicode website for "tilde below" confirms that the three characters you have found are all the characters with tilde below in the Unicode standard. For others, you have two resorts: Use the combining tilde below (as you already noted) Use the private use area for them Proposals for their addition to Unicode will be turned down ...


4

Richard Ishida has a ton of online tools related to unicode and orthography. The most useful one for your purposes is probaby the Character Usage Lookup tool. Not a database, but you might be able to figure out a way to get what you want by looking at his source code, or asking him.


4

Part of this is more a technological than linguistic question. My understanding is that in general, Unicode doesn't have numbers for letters that are composed of characters used for other letters. A special case is IJ, for Dutch, but according to Wikipedia even that is only present as a legacy encoding. W also has its own number, probably because of the ...


3

There is the CLDR - Unicode Common Locale Data Repository that contains beside locale settings also additional information on many languages, e.g., the exact character set used.


3

The basic approach described in https://github.com/atpaino/deep-text-corrector and https://yerevann.github.io/2016/09/09/automatic-transliteration-with-lstm/ is still the state of art. The recipe is: Generate data a. Build a corpus of unlabelled raw text in the target language b. Convert each line to the source language using hand-built rules c. Flip the ...


3

There are quite a few examples, even within the roman script. The OpenType font standard has a feature tag for this very purpose: locl. There is also diachronic variance, hence hist. The most prominent examples are not the base letters, though, but diacritic marks. The French accent acute is flatter than the Polish kreska, for instance, though coded the ...


3

Tamil is another example; there are 12 vowels and 18 consonants, plus one special character, so the alphabet has 31 (12+18+1) independent letters and 216 (12 * 16) combined letters (consonant + a vowel mark) for a total of 247 letters. The Wikipedia page link has the Unicode tables for the characters.


3

First of all, “Modern Standard Arabic” is not "spoken in Egypt", or indeed in any country. It is used only for writing and for reading aloud from a written text. The spoken language in every Arab country is the local dialects. To your question: There is only one Arabic alphabet, but there are diacritics to indicate the non-Arabic sounds occurring in ...


2

There are essentially two option you have: Skim through the existing Unicode characters and select a subset of them suitable for your conlang Go forth and create a conscript (constructed writing system) for your conlang. Don't expect the Unicode consortium to add your conscript to the Unicode standard soon—they have some rather strong criteria for ...


2

This comes down to the way Unicode works: it encodes semantic meanings, not actual glyph shapes. Some fonts might display "a" with a hook on top, while others might not, and neither is incorrect. In this case, the letter is used differently in different languages. Its official name is "NOON GHUNNA", a letter used in Urdu to indicate nasalization at the end ...


2

"Runes" aren't a single writing system: there are several variants, used in different places at different times to transcribe different languages. It's like asking "how do I convert text written in the Latin alphabet to IPA?"—first, you have to know what language and orthography is being used. They're not interchangeable! Once you know what particular runic ...


1

Transliteration is useful because linguistic research is meant to be accessible to linguists generally and not just people with some prior experience with the language in question. Transliteration allows people to read and understand articles without needing to become proficient in a new script or language. We shouldn't assume that everyone will be familiar ...


1

These rules are a bit subjective. For example you did not include ü in Spanish although ü probably occurs as much in formal Spanish corpora as w. You did not include é in English, although it occurs in a few recent loanwords just like w occurs in Spanish. Standard German has ß, but Swiss Standard German does not. So for most applications I would avoid ...


1

No doubt IPA surpasses all existing writing systems as it not only provide specific symbols for phonemes and allophones on the segmental level, but it also provide varying degrees of stress patterns, linking and juncture (pause) features; I strongly suggest learners of a new language should practice its sound system through IPA. For those learning English ...


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