10

Eastern and Western are just two codifications, the total dialect variation within Armenian is similar to that within English and arguably much less than that within German. As noted in the other answer, while the spoken dialect continuum developed over a thousand years, the minor fork in codifications only happened in the past two centuries. One soft ...


7

Much of the following answer comes from this 1999 study, as well as Cheng (2009), and some of my own experiences. Let's first get the usual suspects that identify Cantonese-accented Mandarin as a southern accent out of the way: lack of retroflex consonants. This is a given, merging them into their alveolar (and not palatal) counterparts. Hypercorrection is ...


7

Having talked to Shibatani after the book was published, I can pretty safely say that he has since changed his mind. I think the basic consensus among linguists who have some specialization in Ryukyuan is that there are at least seven Japonic languages in two subgroups. The first subgroup is the Japanese subgroup, which includes Japanese proper, as well as ...


7

I don't know anything about the change in pronunciation of this particular word, so this is just a partial answer. The more general sound change this is a part of is shortening of /uː/ (from Middle English /oː/) to /ʊ/. This is a sporadic sound change that occurred in RP as well (in other words) and is one of the major sources of /ʊ/ in Modern English. For ...


6

There are the following differences: The current Armenian language (which is also considered as Eastern Armenian) was created by Khachatur Abovian, who is best remembered for his novel, Wounds of Armenia. Written in 1841 and published posthumously in 1858, it was the first novel published in the modern Armenian language using Eastern Armenian based on the ...


5

The problem with the language/dialect distinction is that it always, always, always involves politics. Even when trying to do things on a purely linguistic basis, there are far too many borderline cases and questionable situations (e.g. dialect continua, one-sided intelligibility, etc) - you will never end up with a wholly unbiased classification. That said,...


4

To the question Is Nigerian Standard English categorized as a discrete language, a dialect of English, or does it fall under some other category? the answer is: It is classified as a variety of English like British English, American English, or Australian English. All varieties of English have regional dialects and other kinds of lects and slangs.


4

User tchrist made an excellent point in a comment to an answer by Mark Beadles, which probably deserves to be expanded into a separate answer: In many spoken varieties of Spanish, (3) will never be naturally produced (though it will be understood). But there will be focal contrasts such as: (2)' MARÍA lo compró. (3)' Lo compró MARÍA. Also: (4) María ...


3

According to R. Hickey ( Legacies of Colonial English. Studies in Transported Dialect.), the Nigerian English, as most other African Englishes, should be classified as a part of common meta-cluster merged together with South-Eastern Asian Englishes (pp. 510-522). On the other hand, if we pay closer attention to Kachru's Asian Englishes; Beyond the Canon( e....


2

Is the term Japanese English used by anybody? Several comments to this question indicated doubts that terms such as Japanese English are appropriate or used by anybody. In fact, in research on English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) (and on postcolonial varieties of English) such terms are used frequently. A quick search on Google scholar turns up several ...


2

Cruttenden notes "There are more phonetic variations of the /r/ phoneme than of any other English consonants." (Gimson's Pronunciation of English, 2001.207) Among the variations in British English he notes are: [ɾ] alveolar tap - in RP and Liverpool and Newcastle dialects [ɹ] post-alveolar approximant - in RP and some Scottish dialects [ʋ] labiodental ...


2

I'll limit a few examples to the varieties of English found in the UK here. Northumbria There's a phenomenon known as the Northumbrian Burr in Northumbria in the North of England wereby (older) spreakers "typically pronounced as a voiced uvular fricative, often with accompanying lip-rounding ([ʁ(ʷ)])". The Survey of English Dialects 1950-61 even states that ...


1

The term "speech repertoire" actually came from phonetics research in the 1950s. The use of the term "repertoire" in music appears to be relevant, but each "piece of music" was equated to various phonetic properties, defined by the study. This was later adapted to other linguistic fields, e.g. developmental neurolinguistics and ...


1

There is such a notion for some languages, which relates most strongly to written form. There are also pronunciation standards, which may or may not be adhered to by the populace. In the case of big multi-national languages like English, you clearly have to pick a nation: there is absolutey no pretense of a standard pronunciation of "English" words....


1

Between them, Tunny and Danger Fourpence have nicely covered much of Great Britain north of London. Southwest England The Westcountry dialect has the stereotypical retroflex "pirate" R, as demonstrated by Sam in the Lord Of The Rings films (though frankly his accent makes me cringe and sounds to me more like a bad attempt at Irish). Westcountry is,...


1

I think you are just using old stereotype of Japanese as nationalist/racist which in itself is a prejudice. For one, if unintelligibility is the drawing line, then there are about 20 languages in japan, one of which is going to be ryukyuan. When you said "most (maybe even all) non-Japanese linguists" you probably just referring to those who are familiar ...


1

The sources I have read and heard claimed that /r/-dropping in English began after the colonization of the US, and that /r/-dropping later started in London, and spread thence to the port-cities of the US (Boston, New York City, Charleston, Savannah). I learned this in my phonology-class in grad-school, and I have seen sources since then that agreed with it ...


1

Rhoticity distribution in the US has both historical and social reasons. The first-found colonies in the North (New Hampshire, Mass., Connecticut, Rhode Island) and South (Maryland, Georgia, N&S Carolina, Virginia) were non-rhotic right from the start, because the English who settled there came from regions which at that time were already non-rhotic (esp....


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