No one can tell you what construction means without some context. It's a very common word in syntax and generally refers to sentence constituents that may be more than one word. That's not very helpful.
However, inchoative (pronounced in KOE a tiv) has a very specific meaning -- Change of State. Which means beginnings, endings, and changes of all sorts; a ...
Transitivity is a hard concept to handle. Verbs like eat or drink seem like prototypic transitive verbs, but they occur in a lot of structures
He ate too much.
He ate for a long time.
He ate more than I did.
He's stopped drinking.
And verbs like run or walk seem like prototypic intransitive verbs, but they can also occur in a lot of structures