13

As leoboiko mentioned, there are languages with voiceless liquids, like Icelandic. In the IPA, they are simply transcribed with a voicelessness ring diacritic: [r̥] and [l̥]. In Icelandic, these sounds can be analyzed as allophonic realizations of /r/ and /l/ in some contexts, or as the sequences /hr/ and /hl/ in other contexts. It's similar to how in ...


7

Welsh has 'rh' and 'll' as the unvoiced counterparts of 'r' and 'l'.


7

I'm sure there's a lot, but one example would be Icelandic. hlít /l̥iːt/ ‘throughly’ lít /liːt/ ‘I look; you look’ hraða /r̥aːða/ ‘to speed up’ raða /raːða/ ‘to put in order; to employ’ Of course, that depends on the kind of ‘r’ you're talking about; the above is the alveolar trill. If you mean the unusual English approximant, then I don't know a language ...


6

I'll just add a bit of fuel to the above fire. As Sumelic notes, Zulu (and other Nguni languages) have /ɮ, ɬ, l/. The fact that /ɮ, l/ contrast suggests that /ɬ/ which is a voiceless version of /ɮ/ is not "voiceless l", it is a voiceless lateral fricative (as he notes), and not a voiceless /l/. Similarly, the existence of /ɬ/ in Lushootseed and numerous ...


6

Well, yes and no. Vocal F0 range is mainly determined by the length and thickness of the vocal folds. Inasmuch as neck circumference correlates with the size of the vocal folds inside the neck, you could find a loose, indirect correlation between neck circumference and F0 range. For example, adults generally have thicker necks than children, and they ...


3

IMPORTANT: As with most properties of speech, the criteria described below are only going to be useful in relative terms--your script is going to do much better the more specifically it can be trained (either automatically or by you feeding it the appropriate parameters as arguments) for a specific individual in combination with a specific recording setup, ...


2

In phonology, "feature" is not the same as "property", so no "feature" would be relevant in distinguishing Barack Obama's voice from George W. Bush's. Also, features are not necessarily based on articulation (muscle-movement). Individual voice quality is a consequence of individual differences in physiology (vocal tract length, vocal fold anatomy), ...


2

To achieve the level of specificity you desire, you'd have to dispense with abstract, high-level features and instead make use of acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency, formant values, bandwidths, and noise frequency values (if there are consonants involved). Using your example of just an [a] vowel: The size of the person's throat would affect ...


2

I think the answer may be more mundane than you were thinking. Using the 'biometrics' tag for this question may be misleading, because it might imply to some people that the answer has to do with automated speaker recognition. But you are just asking how you, as a person, might identify your friends via visual representations of their speech. This is ...


2

You cannot identify the speaker just by looking at the wave or the spectrogram. Speaker recognition is a big topic with quite a bit of controversy and you need specialized stochastic tools for it. See Mark Liberman's recent post on this: http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=15175. It seems that voice biometrics have come a long way but I don't see ...


2

MusicalLinguist answer is excellent, but I thought I'd point you in the direction of some interesting literatute. There is research done into the relationship between F0 and physiological factors, but not strictly in linguistics. It's found a lot in Animal vocalisations though. Here's a paper by some researchers at Queen Mary in London. http://www....


1

Mehri has voiced and voiceless laterals, conventionally transcribed as “l” and “ś” respectively. Many scholars ascribe this contrast to proto-Semitic.


1

I don't think you've given enough detail about what you want to do with 'some statistical analysis', but I'll take a stab. I am not a stats expert, so these rough ideas will need to be checked by someone who is; I present them for you to know what to ask about. If you want to be able to say 'it's 85% likely that this person is from the longer VOT group', ...


1

A lot of things have to be clarified in your question. First, you need to say what the theoretical population of fundamental frequencies is – do you mean "in all instances of speech" (excluding musical and other non-speech uses of phonation)? You also need to specify age range, since infant speech has kind of high F0. You need to specify language: pitch ...


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