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50

The short answer is that Yiddish is a Germanic language, just one with a significant Hebrew/Aramaic adstrate. Despite many Hebrew borrowings, the majority of Yiddish vocabulary is Germanic, and in fact fairly similar to modern German (since they both derive in large part from Old High German). That's where it got these weekday names from. The weekdays are ...


25

Did Hebrew replace Yiddish? I would say the decline of Yiddish and the rise of Hebrew are separate. Yiddish declined suddenly because of the Holocaust. It arguably would have declined anyway, but it did decline in every country where the surviving Yiddish-speakers ended up - mainly the US and the Soviet Union, where they switched to English and Russian. ...


18

It's an even more complicated story than that! In fact, in the 19th C, there was a strong literary scene of modern novels in Hebrew among European Jews before there was a strong Yiddish literary scene. It still wasn't really spoken until Eliezer ben Yehuda's work in Ottoman Palestine, which was partially based on a marketplace Hebrew that was arising from ...


8

Is it possible that alternate words for days of the week exist or at one time were used? No. The Jewish custom of using foreign names for parts of the calendar dates back far beyond the earliest traces of Yiddish as a language. About the names of the months, which are are even more connected to idol worship than the names of the days of the week (one could ...


4

According to Surface Languages, the Yiddish name for Wednesday is Mitvokh, which follows the German Mittwock: mid week. I think the early Christian missionaries were not comfortable with naming a day after Wotan: the English, OTOH, kept wōdnesdæg. I'm not sure when Jewish people first settled in Germany, but the Germanic gods would have been dead and buried ...


4

The answers above are excellent and on track. What is not clearly discussed is that the rise of Hebrew, pre-1948 (e.g. in the decades prior to the establishment of the State of Israel) was actively promoted by the Zionist movement. This is the cause of the literary scene discussed, and the decision of the Technion to switch to Hebrew. In the early 1990's I ...


2

The best solution to your problem is probably using IPA.


2

That וּ niqqud is called "Melopum" (מלאפום) in Ashkenazi tradition. In A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English, 1987, by Ernest Klein, the word מלאפום is found on page 348: Your variant, מלאופם, is absent in that dictionary. As you can see, the word in your picture has the וּ before פּ, while Wikipedia ...


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