Thomas Gross
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What is the difference between complements and adjuncts?
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16 votes

The distinction is between arguments (sometimes also called complements) and adjuncts. In general, arguments are expressions that complete a predicate, and that are required by the predicate. Adjuncts,...

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Is it possible for a language to have both left-headed and right-headed compounds?
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9 votes

Starting with your last request that the answer be based on morphology, this is, in fact, one of the problems of compounding, because it's not entirely a morphological phenomenon. Compound ...

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The suffix -er in English: Why is this derivational?
6 votes

-er a derivational suffix because it changes the word class to which the entire expression belongs. That is what defines derivational affixes. bake is a verb, but bak-er is a noun. (I assume the ...

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Across agglutinative languages are there tendencies for morphemes to occur in certain orders?
5 votes

I think one of the first major studies was Bybee (1985). Bybee, J.L. 1985. Morphology: A study of the relation between meaning and form. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. She proposed ...

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Discourse analysis of Japanese particles?
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5 votes

Concerning discourse markers: Maynard, Senko (1993) "Discourse modality: Subjectivity, emotion and voice in the Japanese language" (John Benjamins Publishing Company) is seminal work. Newer work can ...

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Origin of world languages
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4 votes

Yes. It's called the "out-of-africa" theory. It's a paleoanthropological hypothesis with substantial support from genetics, in particular studies on mitochondrial DNA. Much work has been done by Luigi ...

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Term: Prejudicial Inability to Understand
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4 votes

To my knowledge there is no specific term for the example of people not being able to understand foreigners because they believe that foreigners cannot understand the language. It seems to me to be ...

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Why is constituency needed, since dependency gets the job done more easily and economically?
4 votes

I don't think that constituency is necessary, although I acknowledge the notion of "constituent" (I just don't think it's the central notion on which language structure is built). Of course, I have to ...

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Does Japanese have determiners?
4 votes

tl;ndr No, Japanese doesn’t have determiners. Since it is requested that “credible and/or official” sources be named in the answer, I would recommend taking a look at Bernard Bloch: 1970. Bernard ...

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Where do I find nikud for a word?
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3 votes

Check out Morfix. (Since I have to input another 12 characters, here they are.)

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What heads can an adverbial phrase have?
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3 votes

in, when and on are the syntactic heads of the respective examples. The second and the fourth example are PPs, so we can expect a preposition to appear as the head. The third example is a subordinated ...

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"Regarding" in Korean and Japanese
3 votes

No, Japanese would not use について because the verb to be used would be あきる, see also here. The reason is that あきる requires the object to be marked with the case particle -ni: 私は豚肉に飽きた。 watashi-wa ...

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What are considered to be driving forces behind grammaticalization?
3 votes

I believe the underlying mechanisms of grammaticalization are well summarized here, namely (semantic) bleaching, de-categorialization, phonetic erosion, and obligatorification. These mechanisms are ...

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What term do linguists use to denote the predicate minus the arguments of the verb?
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3 votes

The answer is: predicators. See footnote 13 for sources. Some people call them predicate chains, or verb chain.

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Is there a good introduction to subjectivity in language?
2 votes

A good introduction is Heiko Narrog's Modality, subjectivity, and semantic change. This link accesses the Japanese amazon site, where you can, if you're quick, have a look inside. Just click on the ...

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Languages with different open and closed word classes
2 votes

Japanese has two adjectival word classes (see for an overview here). One can be inflected, and members of this class can end in -i, an inflectional suffix marking attribution (among other functions). ...

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Is there some intrinsic relationship between the nominative plural and genitive singular?
2 votes

There is a paper by Pavel Caha on Lingbuzz that addresses this exact question. Put simply, Caha argues, within a nanosyntactic framework, that the underlying structure of gen.sg=nom.pl nouns is ...

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Term for omitted pronouns?
2 votes

In German, subject pronouns in the Vorfeld (spec-C) can be omitted. (I think Hubert Haider discusses this phenomenon in one of his books.) Note that this is not possible in subordinated clauses: 1....

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Germanic comparative grammars?
2 votes

I believe you are best served with the following volume: Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages (Handbücher zur Sprach- Und ...

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non-concatenative morphology in written arabic?
2 votes

I don't know Arabic, but what I can extrapolate from Hebrew, which I know a bit, is that you treat the consonants of each expression in the same fashion as you do root consonants. Let's take the ...

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What are the syntactic functions in this example of Dutch cross-serial dependencies?
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1 votes

To the first question "Is the depicted dependency structure plausible at all?", one would have to answer: "That depends on the type of dependency grammar one employs". Kuhlmann, the author of the ...

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Dependencies in case phrases
1 votes

Japanese doesn't have DPs. Those words that can appear in the position associated with determiners/articles, are clearly marked for attribution. The demonstratives kono, sono, etc. contain the ...

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What is an affix called that is interlocked?
1 votes

These affixes are called transfixes.

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Identifying phrasal verbs
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1 votes

I believe you are best served by keeping the verb and the particle together. The two items, e.g. tänker på, express one specific meaning. In the case of tänker på, the meaning is still relatively ...

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What is A-movement ? Can I find a short essay that can explain it?
1 votes

See here for the distinction between A-movement and A'-movement (=A-bar-movement). In short, A-movement moves syntactic objects (words, phrases) into positions where grammatical functions can be ...

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Are imperative verbs starting a command subordinating conjunctions?
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1 votes

As requested by user3898238 in his comment to mine, I try to provide an answer: The verb review is, wrongly, labeled as a subordinating conjunction for the possible reason that in English conjunctions ...

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What is the word class of the first part of a partitive genitive?
1 votes

Interesting question! Tim Osborne has produced a lengthy answer. A response to his answer requires more space than is available in comments. I have therefore modified my own answer in order to ...

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Do phrase structure rules for natural languages explicitly mark which constituents can consist of coordinated constituents of the same type?
1 votes

Answer: mismatches in syntactic category are acknowledged.

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Hebrew to English connection through linguistics?
1 votes

In contemporary Hebrew, znut means "prostitution". It's related to zayin "cock, dick". Concerning pronunciation, it is unlikely that Hebrew znut and English sin are related. The first Hebrew sound is /...

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Monoclausality in dependency trees
0 votes

Your first question is difficult to answer because you don't give glossed examples, and because it isn't clear whether you want to know about idiomatic complex predicates. Assuming that you do, my ...

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