-1

It seems to me that there can be regular sound correspondences between Eurasian, Trans-New-Guinean, Pama-Nyungan and Burushaski. I would call the hypthetical proto-language of these "proto-mitian".

Particularly, the following:

Proto-Mitian
kw
   Euras  hw
   TNG    kw
   PN     ku

Proto-Mitian
đ
   Euras  đ
   TNG    tj
   PN     dj

Proto-Mitian
gu
   Euras  gu
   PN     gu

So, using these, one can try to reconstruct the proto-forms of the words for one, two and tree:

Proto-Mitian
kwinem "first"
->
   Eurasian
   hwinem
   ->
      PIE
      h₁oinom
      Proto-Korean
      hana
      Tungusian
      ömen
      Chukchi
      ənnen
      Ainu
      hine
      North Yukaghir
      xuon
      Itelmen
      qniŋ
->
   Burushaski
   hen
->
   TNG
   kwinem
   ->
      Mangal     
      kwinu
      Yagvoya
      kwənen-oi
      Kamsa
      hunan
      Foroe
      kanoem
      Komutu
      kaman
      Karas
      kon
->
   Pama-Nyungan
   kuynu
   ->
      Diyari
      kunu
      Bangarla
      kuma
      Lanima
      kunya
      Virangu
      guma
      Vaga
      kumbe
      Yarluyandi
      kuña
      Ngadjunmaya
      kean
      Tjapanmay
      kein
      Wariyangga
      kayanu
      Walmatjari
      kayan
      Pinigura
      kugntyi
      Djiwarli
      kayanu
      Thargari
      kayanu

Proto-Mitian
đwor "two", đwirem "second"
->
   Eurasian
   đwor, đwirem
   ->
      PIE
      dwo-, dwi-
      Proto-Korean
      dwur
      Tungusian
      đöör
      Ainu
      tuu
      Mongol
      đwirim
      Old Turkic
      twirem
->
   Burushaski
   tóorumo  ("ten")
->
   TNG
   tjaar, tjaarem
   ->
      Fore
      tara, tarayem
      Komutu
      yarə, yarənə
      Karas
      yir
      Waffa
      táarama
->
    Pama-Nyungan
    djarra, djarrama
    ->
       Walpiri
       tjirrama
       Ngardi
       tjiřama
       West Desert
       tjarra
       Warlmanapa
       jirrama
       Aranda
       tera, terama
       Banggarla
       ttara
       Wariyangga
       tharra
       Wirangu
       dhara
       Djaru
       ɖara
->
   Djamindjungan
   djiram
   ->
      Jaminjung
      djiram
      Nungali
      yiram
     
Proto-Mitian
gworem "third"
->
   Eurasian
   guorem
   ->
      Proto-Korean
      ku
      Tungusian
      gur
      Chukchi
      kurim
      Mongol
      guor
      Finnic
      kuurem
      Samoyed
      gur
      Yukaghir
      jaalon
      Omok
      jalom
->
    Pama-Nyungan
    guram
    ->
       Waga
       kuram
       Walmatjari
       kurn
       Djaru
       gun

If the languages are not related, how these correspondences can be explained?

P.S. Table form:

enter image description here

24
  • 6
    Before trying to make the case for "Mitian" you need to make the case for "Eurasian".
    – Draconis
    Aug 4 at 19:20
  • @Draconis Eurasian is a quite widely discussed hypothesis. Besides the numerals for one, two and tree they show similarity also in words for four (Korean nelih, Tungusic nol, Mongolian nayil, Finno-Ugric nelya), five/palm (PIE penkʷe, Finno-Ugric peŋe, pair (PIE kʷeta, Finno-Ugric ket) and many others. The Fore language listed above also has the word for palm "pune", similar to PIE and Finno-Ugric, and the word for five is kanoem-pune (first-palm), and for ten is tarayem-pune (second-palm).
    – Anixx
    Aug 4 at 19:28
  • @TKR hmmm, in the first table I listed some.
    – Anixx
    Aug 4 at 19:49
  • 7
    As far as I can see you have a total of one data point for each putative "regular correspondence".
    – TKR
    Aug 4 at 19:52
  • 1
    So they postulate that Korean ilgop ("seven") is made of yeol ("ten") + ku (???) + eops- ("do not exist") and concludes that ilgop was derived from "ten minus three" and the middle part "ku" corresponds to three. That sounds... very far-fetching.
    – jick
    Aug 5 at 16:23

1 Answer 1

7

I don't see any regular correspondences in the data you've presented.

A regular correspondence involves a series of forms in which, whenever language A has sound X, language B has sound Y. For example, in the "one" word in your table the PIE form has *h₁- and the Fore form has k-. If there was a series of words where PIE had *h₁- and Fore had k-, that would be a regular correspondence. There don't seem to be any instances of such series in this data.

What the data do contain are some vague similarities: e.g. many of the "one" forms contain a vowel-nasal sequence (with sometimes a second nasal later in the word, and sometimes an initial consonant which is often dorsal or glottal); many of the "two" words contain a vowel-R sequence, preceded by a consonant which is sometimes apical, sometimes not. That's more or less it in terms of similarities across the families / putative macrofamilies.

It's not out of the question that these similarities could reflect deep historical relationships, but it would take a lot more evidence to build a convincing case; with data this vague and limited, the most obvious explanation is coincidence. (I don't know the source for the forms you're using, and am assuming they's correct as far as modern languages go, though long-range comparativists tend notoriously to be sloppy about such things. As far as the reconstructed data go, those obviously add another layer of doubt.)

6
  • Oh, that Djaru word is apparently not a cognate, I do not know why it is in the table, but it is not there in the tree.
    – Anixx
    Aug 4 at 22:25
  • This is the main source: zompist.com/numbers.shtml
    – Anixx
    Aug 4 at 22:34
  • Removed unneeded words from the table
    – Anixx
    Aug 4 at 22:38
  • @Anixx The specific language doesn't affect the point, but I've changed the answer to use a different form that's still in the table.
    – TKR
    Aug 4 at 22:47
  • This word, jati is not a cognate as well, and not hypothesized to be such. I kept it in te table so to highlight that the word for four "jata-pinti" possibly means "one to palm".
    – Anixx
    Aug 4 at 22:54

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