For example if I call my friend. I know he is wether with his brother or sister, and then I ask further: Are you together with your brother or...

you can finish the question in several ways:

... together with your sister?
... with your sister?
... your sister?
... sister?

Maybe some of the options sound somewhat strange, but they are all acceptable, and they are equal in meaning.

Is there any universal cross-linguistical preference for which place to go further (e.g. one word class is more preferred than another)? To what extent is the phenomenon language specific? Is there any pragmatic or stylistic difference in them?

  • 2
    Problem: only English has these words. What is a cross-linguistic universal for a set of choices that only exist in English? Solution: you need to extract the specific linguistic property that distinguishes these structures so that it isn't just a string of English words.
    – user6726
    Feb 24 at 23:20
  • 1
    Another problem: they are not all equal in meaning. Barring further context and assuming straightforward, non-emphatic question intonation, the last option to me means ‘are you currently together with someone who is either your brother or your sister?’ (expected answer: yes/no), whereas the others are all ‘A or B’ questions (expected answer: my brother/my sister). Feb 25 at 17:23

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