# What is the difference between surface structure and logical form?

I'm still confused about the difference between these two concepts. Could you explain it with some examples? Thank you in advance!:)

• This question is broad enough to be answered in textbook chapters or even whole books, not a few sentences in a Stack Exchange post. Which textbook are you using for your class? Have you checked there? If yes, what specifically are you unsure about? Commented Oct 21, 2020 at 11:47
• An answer to the question can be found in e.g. H. de Svart "Introduction to natural language semantics" ch. 5, J. Lyons "Linguistic semantics" ch. 7.3, or E. Zimmermann & W. Sternefeld "Introduction to semantics" ch. 3.4. Commented Oct 21, 2020 at 18:10
• @lemontree♦ Thank you for your kind reply! Actually I'm reading Chapter 4 Case of HNG. Understanding Minimalism, but it's too overwhelming to me. I'll check out what you recommended. I'm really appreciative! :) Commented Oct 27, 2020 at 3:25
• If you want to come more from the syntactic side, you could also give S. Müller "Grammatical Theory" ch. 3.1.3, A. Carnie "Sytax: A Generative Introduction" ch. 12 .2-12.3, L. Haegman "Introduction to Government and Binding Theory" ch. 9 or A. Radford et. al. "Linguistics: An Introduction" ch. 23 a try. Commented Oct 27, 2020 at 11:26
• @lemontree♦ That's so considerate of you! Thank you very much! :) Commented Oct 27, 2020 at 13:38

They are special terminology from the Y model.

``````  DS
| (overt movement)
SS
/ | (covert movement)
PF LF
``````

Today it is more common to draw a kind of T model.

``````     |
|
LF __SO__ PF
``````

No Deep Structure (DS) in the T model. Surface Structure is nowadays called Spell-out and is rather a point in the derivation (a point in time) than a representational level. There is "before" and "after Spell-out" rather than "at Surface Structure".

• Sorry I forgot to add examples for you. Quantifier raising for example can be analyzed as being the difference between what you hear (aka Surface Structure) and LF. Commented Oct 28, 2020 at 1:59
• Thank you so much for your kind reply!:) Now I get it! Commented Oct 30, 2020 at 5:11