Portuguese has the same verbs, ser and estar, as Spanish, with similar distinctions governing the use of either.
Basically, ser implies permanency, while estar implies transitoriety:
Eu sou doente -> I have a health condition.
Eu estou doente -> I am sick at the moment.
Such use roughly implies that ser matches acceptions 1, 2 and 4 of bytebuster's list, while estar matches acceptions 2 and 3:
to be (an object x is a part of set X), e.g. "this is an apple";
to be (an object x has property of y), e.g. "the box is red"
to be (located at), e.g. "I am at the office";
to mean, e.g. "to live is to love".
This also allows speakers to make finer distinctions if they use estar instead of ser in acception 1:
Eu não sou ministro, eu estou ministro. (literally, I am not a Minister, I am a Minister; meaning something like, "I am not a Minister like I am a Black man; I am a Minister like I am suntanned").
But it is more complicated than that, with some weird exceptions (for instance, ele está morto - he is dead - with estar instead of ser, albeit one would wonder what could be more permanent than death), and the fact that both verbs are also auxiliaries, and the difference in the use of either as an auxiliary is much bigger than their differences as main verbs.
Ser is the auxiliary used in the passive voice:
Isto é fabricado no Canadá - This is manufactured in Canada.
Estar is an auxiliary used to modify tense/aspect, specifically to denote a continuous aspect:
Estou comendo alface - I am eating lettuce; a present continuous, in opposition to the simple present Eu como alface - I do eat lettuces.
Albeit the more formal ele é falecido - "he is dead", or more properly "he is deceased" takes ser, as it should be, not estar
Ser is also highly irregular, taking forms from at least three different roots:
Ele será - He will be
Ele era - He used to be
Ele foi - He was.