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5

It's hard to say, because outside of language-specific traditions (especially English and Latin), "gerund" is not a clearly-defined part of speech. For example, in Bantu languages, there is a clearly-defined form "infinitive" usually marked with a prefix kʊ-, which behaves like a verb w.r.t. VP syntax and like an NP w.r.t. higher-clause syntax (it triggers ...


5

A lot of confusion here... Let's try to clear it up: Forms like facta, scripta are neuter plural forms of the perfect passive participle. The meaning of the perfect passive participle is "having been (verb)ed", so factus, -a, -um means "having been done"; factum as a neuter used nominally means "thing having been done, thing done", and facta is the plural ...


4

As usual in linguistics, a lot depends on your theory of language. Not everyone has gerunds in their theory (actually most modern syntacticians don't). There are some researchers who understand gerunds differently. There are linguists who are agnostic about the inflectional/derivational opposition; others have a continuum with inflection and derivation ...


3

Present and past participles can function like nouns, adjectives or verbs. There are clearly some examples where the non-lemma form has taken on a life of its own. There are some which have currency and their own dictionary entry but are still essentially semantically logically derived from their theoretical lemma. And there are those which do not have ...


3

The term "gerund" is a fudge. It is used as if it was a subcategory of verb, when in fact, of course, it is just a particular inflected form of a given verb. Worse than this, this pseudo part of speech, in English at least, is actually 25% a part of speech and 50% a grammatical function label. The reason for this is that people who differentiate between "...


2

Edited into something slightly more useful in light of the comments below. A gerund is not a part of speech in that it is not a category on the level of noun, verb, determiner, preposition, etc. (Of course, you can ask: "What part of speech is that?" when pointing to a gerund, as you can with any word.) There is a range of items that look gerund-like, and ...


2

This is not a great explanation, and it's conjectural, but here goes. We know that in the evolution of grammatical systems, new constructions are introduced only gradually, beginning with simpler constructions, then generalized step by step to more complicated constructions. And, more specifically, we know that passive morphology was not at first used with ...


2

Generally speaking, gerunds are lemmatised and counted as verbs (and typically, there is just one tag like VING for the ing-form of the verb, no matter how it is used in a sentence) in corpus linguistics. From the examples given, I think many taggers and human annotators will annotate boring as an adjective despite the existence of a verb to bore, and ...


2

The -ing ending of the English gerund is inflectional, since suffixing it does not change the part of speech, and this is generally taken as distinguishing English inflection from derivation. Adding a derivational suffix does change the part of speech, but adding -ing to a verb to get a gerund leaves you with the same part of speech, since a gerund is a ...


2

So are there some languages that do not use verbs directly to form nouns, adjectives, or adverbs by means of transforming the verb into an infinitive, participle, gerund, or similar such aspect of speech … ? I think isolating languages like Mandarin might fit this bill. Mandarin lacks extensive verbal morphology, such that a verb's function is more often ...


1

I think you need another level to find where gerunds fit in: 0. Inflectional forms of parts of speech 1. Parts of speech 2. Phrases 3. Roles within a sentence like Subject and Object A gerund in English is an inflectional form of a verb formed by adding the suffix -ing to the base form of the verb. It is found in factive nominalizations, which are ...


1

Facta and scripta are perfect passive participles in the neuter plural. They are not pluperfect.


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