Hot answers tagged

21

The script has nothing to do with the origin of the language. In fact, every script can be used to write any language. Usually a language adopts the script that is associated with the religion and/or dominating cultural influence. For example, Malay, which belongs to the Austronesian family of languages, used the Arabic script (with some variations) when the ...


13

There is a theory, applicable to all human languages, that is even encoded in what certain words mean in linguistics. Namely, "related" is taken to be a claim about genetic (historical) relations between languages. When we say that English and German are related, we mean that they historically derive from a single language. When we say that English and ...


7

I cannot answer this as a linguist. However, being a native Thai speaker, and being someone who educated himself about linguistics much enough to have some idea on stress-timed vs. syllable-timed (acoustic phonetics is one of my particular interests), I believe that I can provide some good information on Thai's prosody (specifically stress and rhythm). To ...


7

We have a case of historical spellings. We'll use the descendants of the alveolar stops as the easiest to understand: ISO Romanisation: ta - tha - da - dha Devanagari: त - थ - द - ध Khmer script: ត - ថ - ទ - ធ Thai script: ต - ถ - ท - ธ When the Thai script was developed the late 13th century, there was already literacy in Pali and Mon-Khmer scripts. Hence,...


7

You've almost got it! The trick is, the professor isn't asking if [p̚ t̚ k̚] are allophones of a single phoneme. That is, they're not asking if there's a single underlying phoneme /C̚/ that surfaces as all three of those. Instead, they're asking if [p̚] might be an allophone of something else, and if [t̚] might be an allophone of something else, and if [k̚] ...


5

At the phonetic level, nobody really know how complex it "can" be. As you presumably know, F0 is a windowed function, and if we take a standard window of 10 msc., you can get a huge number of integer vectors for durations up to 400 msc. But it's physically impossible to change F0 from 100 Hz to 400 Hz within the course of 10 or 20 msc. There are also very ...


5

Short answer: Because Thai language has other tools for expressing polarity (affirmation and negation). Polarity is a grammatical category for expressing the speaker's assertion that a certain clause is true (positive polarity, or affirmation) or false (negative polarity, or negation). There are numerous linguistic tools to encode both polarities, and each ...


5

I can't comment on Lao, but I know that the Thai word originally meant "water skipper" (insects of the family Gerridae). Nowadays these bugs can be called จิงโจ้น้ำ /ciŋ.côo náam/, according to my older Thai neighbor. Thai-language.com includes this now-secondary meaning from the Royal Institute 1982 dictionary (http://thai-language.com/id/136374). You can ...


5

You might want to check out this page http://sealang.net/thai/chinese/middle.htm which indeed claims that the word is related to 要. เอา Prapin gloss: to want Prapin: 606 (class 1) Chinese gloss: idem   Karlgren: 1142a   Big5: 要 (1) yao1 {yao4} (0) yao4 yao3 {yao1} (1) [1] [v] invite; request the presence of [2] [v] engage; date; make ...


4

The symbols the Thai and Khmer scripts share but which are not used in Classical Sanskrit are few. They are these: Consonant: Khmer ឡ [lɑː] and Thai ฬ [ḷa]. This symbol is used in Pali and Vedic Sanskrit words for the sound [ḷ] which does not exist in Classical Sanskrit. These vowel diacritics: Khmer ឹ [ə]/[ɨ] and Thai ◌ึ [ɯ] and their long counterparts; ...


4

No, because they don't provide a transcription, they provide a transliteration. Note that if the language uses the Latin alphabet, you get no help. It is also not always the "best" transliteration, for example in Arabic it does not retain the plain / emphatic distinction in dentals and its rendering of ʕ (as "e") is, uh, odd. The contrast between ...


4

According to the Thai wiktionary ขอรับ kráp is a shortening of ขอรับ kɔ̌ɔ-ráp "ask to serve" = "may I serve you?". Ká, however, is uncertain. I don't think there's a single equivalent to these politeness markers in IE languages, where politeness and gender are marked by different mechanisms.


4

I believe that this question comes from misunderstanding between the orthography and typography. From the typography point of view, you don't care how characters "encode" sounds. Your only concern is symbols and glyphs and how they combine on print. These characters can be: standalone characters — that take horizontal space, like the Latin A, and zero-...


4

Wouldn’t Thai เปล่า be the etymological equivalent of Lao ບໍ່ ? My impression is that เปล่า is mainly used as a question tag and response, as in เป็นหวัดหรือเปล่า? (Do you have a cold?) เปล่า (No.) (ไม่ would also be possible here, but sounds more formal.) But the Longdo dictionary entry also has it in preverbal position: นักเรียนพูดกับครูว่า ...


4

I see no contradiction here: Lao: ຊ (ຊ ຊ້າງ) [so sâːŋ] is a direct equivalent of Thai: ช ช้าง [tɕʰo tɕʰáːŋ] This even includes the meaning of the verbose name of the consonant ("an elephant"). Many other words "behave" the same, they preserve their written forms but pronounced according to each language's standards: "nation" ชนชาติ [tɕʰon tɕʰâːt] - ...


4

There isn't such a theory. For starters, a sprachbund only occurs through contact, and so it's unlikely to have a sprachbund broken up by South or Central Asia. Second of all, the different types of t-like sounds in Arabic (and some varieties of Hebrew) use is not like the varieties of t-like sounds in South East Asian languages. Arabic <ت> and Hebrew &...


4

I believe the full answer would take a whole book. Here's the brief: ท ([d] → [tʰ]) is not alone here. The original Pali consonant list had consonants ordered according to where they are produced in human's vocal tract (I believe this was a very unique feature of a writing system in the entire history of mankind); During the course of time, the phonetic ...


3

Tone sandhi is the term you are looking for. According to Wikipedia, Tone sandhi is a phonological change occurring in tonal languages, in which the tones assigned to individual words or morphemes change based on the pronunciation of adjacent words or morphemes. See also this question and my answer for it (pay attention to the links within): How does ...


3

บ is used in Thai as a negative particle in poetic contexts, I think. For example, in the บทสวดมนต์ สรภัญญะ  : ตัดมูลเกลสมาร, บ มิหม่นมิหมองมัว "Who have cut the roots of defilements and are not sorrowful, not dark and gloomy." Translation source: http://paultrafford.blogspot.com/2013/03/a-buddha-prayer-song-translated.html?m=1


3

This will be not a very scientific answer, but from experience, native Thai speakers use all types of approximants, flaps, and trills for ร /r/. The approximant may be reduced to a very short duration which can be hard to detect altogether. Quite often, they also interchange (mix up) /r/ and /l/, in both directions. It differs a bit for people of different ...


3

In speaking of a comparison of vocabularies between the languages, one may refer to the Swadesh list, which is a commonly used compilation of vocabulary items used for quantifying the relations between two languages. I'll refer you to André-Georges Haudricourt, 1953 for the details, but the paper showed correspondences between Vietnamese and one or more of ...


3

The official system of Romanization of the Thai languiage is Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS). All road signs, landmarks, and so on are to be transcribed according to RTGS. RTGS has certain pro's, likewise it uses a plain Latin alphabet, no tone marks, no vowel length marks, etc. And these are also con's (e.g. you can't read it properly ...


3

I was there in the rural areas and they used the particles among each other as well. A lot of standard phrases wouldn't even sound right without it - like Kop Kun Kaa/Kap. Also, it is used intensively in flirting - the women pronouncing the Kaa in an overtly feminine way if they are in a playful mood. While the men, with or without flirt intentions, try to ...


3

The serial verb construction is the most common and least marked way of expressing the instrumental meaning. Among the verbs used in the first verb position include: เอา (ao) ใช้ (chái) นำ (nam) For example, as quoted here: เขาใช้มีดตัดเนื้อ kăo chái mêet dtàt néua he take knife cut meat There is also a version with ด้วย (dûai), ...


3

No, the "default" is just the verb itself, without tense. It is true that tense has to be generally inferred and that goes for present tense as well, but it would be a mistake to assume present tense if "yesterday" or "tomorrow" has already been specified in a conversation. However, the concept of aspect is strong in the Thai language, and this has a ...


3

To restate the question, is it possible to derive every instance of [p̚, t̚, k̚] from some other consonant by applying a rule (what is that rule), and if so, what consonants underlie phonetic [p̚, t̚, k̚]. Pairs like [rap̚, rak̚] only show that [p̚] is not an allophone of [k̚], or vice versa. You have to look at all of the other possible things that [p̚] can ...


2

The words in question seem to be (in order of appearance): ดึก [dɯ̀k] — late at night; มืด [mɯ̂ːt] — dark; never heard of it used to tell time of day; สาย [sǎːj] — late; as in "to be late"; again, never heard of it used to tell time of day; you've probably heard it in phrases like "to wake up late"; "Kwa^m" seems to be actually ค่ำคืน [kʰâm kʰɯːn] — dusk, ...


2

Another word widely heard in Laos when they want to make a sentence more polite, I hear "ໂດຍ" or "ໂດຍຂ້ານ້ອຍ". After asking some friends who speak Lao as a mothertongue, they always use "ໂດย", the shorten form of "ໂດຍຂ້ານ້ອຍ" which is older and more polite, with people in general but prefer using "ເຈົ້າ" with people in higher age and rank, additionally for ...


2

The languages with the most loanwords from English: There are several candidates, depending on how you define "loanword" (which is not quite clear in the case of creoles), "language" (as opposed to a dialect), and how you define "South-East Asia" (does Papua New Guinea belong to it?). In general, there are quite a few South East Asian countries where English ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible