Questions tagged [interlinear-gloss]

The explanation or translation of one set of terms with another set of terms, where the second set is typically written between the lines of the text written with the first set.

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What are some example linguistic glosses for the early languages which lack definite articles ("the")? [closed]

My working assumption is that definite articles evolve in language after much of more simpler language, though they can later be lost from a language as it evolves further. First, it appears to me ...
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Is there a neat way in syntax glossing to indicate "these are all optional, but at least one of them must be there"?

I'm talking about a general case of the following situation: *( (x) (y) (z) (w) ) lorem ipsum where the positions for the optional elements are not contiguous. For example, they may occupy the ...
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Computer generated/aided glossing

I want to experiment with innovative ways of presenting a written text on a printed page to help a non-native speaker to read it. The example I have in mind is the Iliad for people whose native ...
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Is there an easy way to input interlinear morphemic gloss in a normal document on an iPad?

Similar to tools which help you type and format mathematics, or easy ways to type IPA, but for a nicely formatted interlinear morphemic gloss. Not in a Latex document, but a tool which helps you ...
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How to do an interlinear glossing to sentences written in two languages at the same time, e.g. sentences with code-switching?

I have sentences written in German and in the German sentences there are some Italian words and/or morphemes to find. It is like code-switching: When you start talking in German, then a word does not ...
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How to gloss a possessive suffix?

I'm new to glossing with the Leipzig rules. In Hebrew, one can attach possessive suffixes to nouns, as in: sūsām sūs-Ø-ām horse-m.sg-m.3pl "their horse" I'm afraid this can get confusing ...
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Pattern of use of modal verbs across languages

So I am toying with language and understand how to treat basic verbs and nouns and adjectives. But I am stuck on modal verbs like "I should have gone home". I would like to know basically a cheat ...
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How to gloss a word that doesn't contribute semantically?

I'm trying to fix a gloss where I've been told not to include a literal translation of a word. I know it's a linkage marker, but I don't know which word to 'call' it. emu da ballà we.are from dance....
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3 answers
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Is there a database of literal linguistic glosses across languages or per language?

I would like to compare different sentence structures and would like to look up sentence glosses quickly. Are there any databases out there, either for all languages or for individual languages? In ...
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Why aren't "animate", "inanimate" in Leipzig glossing rues?

Or are they in a revised version (My copy is 2015)? I've seen "ANIM" and "INAN" - is this the de-facto standard?
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How do I gloss a Semitic verb?

"Standard" glossing (following the Leipzig rules) uses a linear model of breaking down words into morphemes. In other words, it assumes you can draw lines between all the morphemes to separate them. ...
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What does 3MPL refer to?

" b. Ha-yeladim kul-am zarku ʔavanim. the children all-3MPL threw stones ‘The children all threw stones." In this example, what does '3MPL' mean?
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What’s the standard way to gloss a morpheme that provides subject, object and tense?

If there a Leipzig standard to gloss a suffix like “1st person subject, second person object, past tense” My best guess is 1.S.2.O.Past And then what if it’s first person exclusive 1.EXCL.S....
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How to differentiate the abbreviations for preposition and prepositional case in interlinear glossing?

How to differentiate the abbreviations for preposition and prepositional case in interlinear glossing? It’s both PREP and still very dissimilar, yet both appear mixed. Interlinear gloss really helps ...
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If there is a version of linguistics that doesn't break sentences into tree structures

All linguistics I've seen breaks sentences into tree structures like this: The gloss is sort of a more flattened, chain-like structure, but it is much less formal than the syntax tree: Wondering if ...
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Where this notation comes from and what it means

I have seen in a few places such as here and here this sort of notation: el-ler-imiz-in (Turkish) hand-plr.-1st plr.-genitive case, ‘of our hands’ or: kapi-ja-u-lau-nngit-tuq stab-PASS-be-PST-NEG-...
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What do these morphemes' abbreviated glosses mean?

I am taking a course on linguistics and got introduced to a lot of abbreviations. Other than the obvious V for verb, I am having a lot of trouble finding out what the others mean. The book Speech and ...
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Symbol or abbreviation for a particle?

Not sure if this is a silly question, but: is there a standardised symbol or abbreviation that can be used in formal definitions to refer to particles? Writing "PARTICLE" or "PART" sounds...silly...
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2 answers
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Glossing and translating personal pronouns absent from Indo-European languages

In describing most languages we can gloss the personal pronouns with English pronouns such as "I," "you," "he," and "we." However, it's not possible to do this with all languages. For example, in ...
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How do you do an interlinear gloss for an analytic language?

I have reviewed the Liepzig Rules, and google searches are failing me. They don't say much about glossing words that don't have any internal morphology. The gloss of an analytic language by these ...
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How does one gloss a case that has both locative and genitive meaning?

I am designing a language where a single case affix expresses both loc and gen. How should such a case be labelled? An example would be: house-GEN.LOC 'in the house'; he-GEN.LOC house-3POSS 'his ...
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Literal translation with grammar notes when analyzing or describing a foreign language

I often see this kind of analysis / comparison in linguistic textbooks where they basically provide literal translation of a sentence with grammar notes (like verb tense, noun case etc.). For example: ...
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Where can I find references for how to build interlinear gloss for Chinese?

I find building interlinear gloss for Chinese to be difficult without any sort of reference material for what to call different grammatical particles etc. Is there such a reference available online?
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How is filler conveyed in a gloss?

Fillers are used in many languages when the speaker signals that he or she is thinking but has not yet finished talking. Things in English like umm, er, uh etc. Is there something that can be put in ...
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5 votes
2 answers
908 views

How do you gloss a language with no definite or indefinite article?

Some languages have no definite or indefinite article, for example, I think, Polish. So the Polish word kot could mean "a cat" or "the cat". So in a glossed example, and not knowing the context, how ...
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6 votes
2 answers
544 views

Abbreviations for "gerund", "gerundive" and "supine"?

Are there some commonly used abbreviations for "gerund", "gerundive" and "supine"?
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3 answers
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How to work on annotating AND sentence-aligning parallel texts?

There are plenty of software programs facilitating interlinear transcription (e.g. Toolbox, Fieldworks Language Explorer). There's also a number of tools that allow you to work on aligning parallel ...
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3 votes
1 answer
233 views

Is there a database of interlinear glosses of subordination-examples?

I'm currently investigating the typology of subordination, or to be more precise adverbial subordination, and would like to see the data that the existing analyses, like for instance Cristofaro (2005) ...
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34 votes
7 answers
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How do I format an interlinear gloss for HTML?

I'm trying to use interlinear glossing to show the structure of a sentence to an audience without requiring them to learn the language in question. Are there any tools for quickly creating an ...
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