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Questions tagged [interlinear-gloss]

The explanation or translation of one set of terms with another set of terms, where the second set is typically written between the lines of the text written with the first set.

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Can interlinear gloss shows only specific metalinguistic elements?

Background For my research I need to create interlinear linguistic gloss between Russian and Indonesian. Russian is characterized with a highly inflective morphosyntactic grammar, and as such glossing ...
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Can complementisers be glossed as "C"

I have been glossing complementisers as "C" for years and I could have sworn that I got this from the Leipzig Glossing Rules list of standard abbreviations, however, recently, when I looked, ...
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What is the leipzig convention for glossing nonce words?

How do you gloss nonce words (words which are created for a single occasion and have no meaning on their own) in interlinear glossing?
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Is there a term for mixed gender in plural pronouns (as opposed to masculine, feminine, or neuter)?

In English, there is only one third person plural pronoun to refer to groups of any gender or genders. Multiple "he"s becomes they, multiple "she"s becomes they, multiple "it&...
ThornShadow's user avatar
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3 answers
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How accurate are interlinear texts, or linguistic glosses?

Here are 2 examples of interlinear texts: Quran (Arabic) Bible (Greek) And here is a term γινώσκω, which is defined shortly as "to come to know, recognize, perceive", but in one word as &...
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What are some example linguistic glosses for the early languages which lack definite articles ("the")? [closed]

My working assumption is that definite articles evolve in language after much of more simpler language, though they can later be lost from a language as it evolves further. First, it appears to me ...
Lance's user avatar
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Is there a neat way in syntax glossing to indicate "these are all optional, but at least one of them must be there"?

I'm talking about a general case of the following situation: *( (x) (y) (z) (w) ) lorem ipsum where the positions for the optional elements are not contiguous. For example, they may occupy the ...
Rethliopuks's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
177 views

Computer generated/aided glossing

I want to experiment with innovative ways of presenting a written text on a printed page to help a non-native speaker to read it. The example I have in mind is the Iliad for people whose native ...
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Is there an easy way to input interlinear morphemic gloss in a normal document on an iPad?

Similar to tools which help you type and format mathematics, or easy ways to type IPA, but for a nicely formatted interlinear morphemic gloss. Not in a Latex document, but a tool which helps you ...
julkarham's user avatar
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112 views

How to do an interlinear glossing to sentences written in two languages at the same time, e.g. sentences with code-switching?

I have sentences written in German and in the German sentences there are some Italian words and/or morphemes to find. It is like code-switching: When you start talking in German, then a word does not ...
Vale's user avatar
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How to gloss a possessive suffix?

I'm new to glossing with the Leipzig rules. In Hebrew, one can attach possessive suffixes to nouns, as in: sūsām sūs-Ø-ām horse-m.sg-m.3pl "their horse" I'm afraid this can get confusing ...
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Pattern of use of modal verbs across languages

So I am toying with language and understand how to treat basic verbs and nouns and adjectives. But I am stuck on modal verbs like "I should have gone home". I would like to know basically a cheat ...
Lance's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
130 views

How to gloss a word that doesn't contribute semantically?

I'm trying to fix a gloss where I've been told not to include a literal translation of a word. I know it's a linkage marker, but I don't know which word to 'call' it. emu da ballà we.are from dance....
NoID's user avatar
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Is there a database of literal linguistic glosses across languages or per language?

I would like to compare different sentence structures and would like to look up sentence glosses quickly. Are there any databases out there, either for all languages or for individual languages? In ...
Lance's user avatar
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Why aren't "animate", "inanimate" in Leipzig glossing rues?

Or are they in a revised version (My copy is 2015)? I've seen "ANIM" and "INAN" - is this the de-facto standard?
Jim Witte's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
778 views

How do I gloss a Semitic verb?

"Standard" glossing (following the Leipzig rules) uses a linear model of breaking down words into morphemes. In other words, it assumes you can draw lines between all the morphemes to separate them. ...
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What does 3MPL refer to?

" b. Ha-yeladim kul-am zarku ʔavanim. the children all-3MPL threw stones ‘The children all threw stones." In this example, what does '3MPL' mean?
Sihao Liang's user avatar
2 votes
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172 views

What’s the standard way to gloss a morpheme that provides subject, object and tense?

If there a Leipzig standard to gloss a suffix like “1st person subject, second person object, past tense” My best guess is 1.S.2.O.Past And then what if it’s first person exclusive 1.EXCL.S....
Teusz's user avatar
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1 vote
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How to differentiate the abbreviations for preposition and prepositional case in interlinear glossing?

How to differentiate the abbreviations for preposition and prepositional case in interlinear glossing? It’s both PREP and still very dissimilar, yet both appear mixed. Interlinear gloss really helps ...
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If there is a version of linguistics that doesn't break sentences into tree structures

All linguistics I've seen breaks sentences into tree structures like this: The gloss is sort of a more flattened, chain-like structure, but it is much less formal than the syntax tree: Wondering if ...
Lance's user avatar
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5 votes
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Where this notation comes from and what it means

I have seen in a few places such as here and here this sort of notation: el-ler-imiz-in (Turkish) hand-plr.-1st plr.-genitive case, ‘of our hands’ or: kapi-ja-u-lau-nngit-tuq stab-PASS-be-PST-NEG-...
Lance's user avatar
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What do these morphemes' abbreviated glosses mean?

I am taking a course on linguistics and got introduced to a lot of abbreviations. Other than the obvious V for verb, I am having a lot of trouble finding out what the others mean. The book Speech and ...
Kong's user avatar
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Symbol or abbreviation for a particle?

Not sure if this is a silly question, but: is there a standardised symbol or abbreviation that can be used in formal definitions to refer to particles? Writing "PARTICLE" or "PART" sounds...silly...
player.mdl's user avatar
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2 answers
1k views

Glossing and translating personal pronouns absent from Indo-European languages

In describing most languages we can gloss the personal pronouns with English pronouns such as "I," "you," "he," and "we." However, it's not possible to do this with all languages. For example, in ...
Teusz's user avatar
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1 answer
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How do you do an interlinear gloss for an analytic language?

I have reviewed the Liepzig Rules, and google searches are failing me. They don't say much about glossing words that don't have any internal morphology. The gloss of an analytic language by these ...
MatthewMartin's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
284 views

How does one gloss a case that has both locative and genitive meaning?

I am designing a language where a single case affix expresses both loc and gen. How should such a case be labelled? An example would be: house-GEN.LOC 'in the house'; he-GEN.LOC house-3POSS 'his ...
żaba's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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Literal translation with grammar notes when analyzing or describing a foreign language

I often see this kind of analysis / comparison in linguistic textbooks where they basically provide literal translation of a sentence with grammar notes (like verb tense, noun case etc.). For example: ...
stillenat's user avatar
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6 votes
0 answers
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Where can I find references for how to build interlinear gloss for Chinese?

I find building interlinear gloss for Chinese to be difficult without any sort of reference material for what to call different grammatical particles etc. Is there such a reference available online?
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6 votes
1 answer
221 views

How is filler conveyed in a gloss?

Fillers are used in many languages when the speaker signals that he or she is thinking but has not yet finished talking. Things in English like umm, er, uh etc. Is there something that can be put in ...
Danger Fourpence's user avatar
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2 answers
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How do you gloss a language with no definite or indefinite article?

Some languages have no definite or indefinite article, for example, I think, Polish. So the Polish word kot could mean "a cat" or "the cat". So in a glossed example, and not knowing the context, how ...
Danger Fourpence's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
650 views

Abbreviations for "gerund", "gerundive" and "supine"?

Are there some commonly used abbreviations for "gerund", "gerundive" and "supine"?
ojs's user avatar
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9 votes
3 answers
2k views

How to work on annotating AND sentence-aligning parallel texts?

There are plenty of software programs facilitating interlinear transcription (e.g. Toolbox, Fieldworks Language Explorer). There's also a number of tools that allow you to work on aligning parallel ...
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3 votes
1 answer
262 views

Is there a database of interlinear glosses of subordination-examples?

I'm currently investigating the typology of subordination, or to be more precise adverbial subordination, and would like to see the data that the existing analyses, like for instance Cristofaro (2005) ...
kaleissin's user avatar
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35 votes
7 answers
4k views

How do I format an interlinear gloss for HTML?

I'm trying to use interlinear glossing to show the structure of a sentence to an audience without requiring them to learn the language in question. Are there any tools for quickly creating an ...
MatthewMartin's user avatar